Mining hardware comparison - BitcoinWiki

Always bet on RED

[link]

Litecoin mining!

Since the litecoin community is growing, I've decided to introduce /litecoinmining, a place for all discussion revolving mining litecoins!
[link]

ColossusXT Q2 2020 AMA Ends!

Thank you for being a part of the ColossusXT Q2 2020 AMA! Below we will summarize the questions and answers. The team responded to 46 questions! If your question was not included, it may have been answered in a previous question or AMA. The ColossusXT team will do a Reddit AMA at the end of every quarter.
The winner of the AMA contest is: ookhimself
Congratulations. I will send you a DM on Reddit.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Why does your blockchain exist and what makes it unique?
A: ColossusXT exists to provide an energy-efficient method of supercomputing. ColossusXT is unique in many ways. Some coins have 1 layer of privacy. ColossusXT and the Colossus Grid will utilize 2 layers of privacy through Obfuscation Zerocoin Protocol, and I2P and these will protect users of the Colossus Grid as they utilize the grid resources. There are also Masternodes and Proof of Stake which both can contribute to reducing 51% attacks, along with instant transactions and zero-fee transactions. This protection is paramount as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. Grid Computing will have a pivotal role throughout the world, and what this means is that users will begin to experience the Internet as a seamless computational universe. Software applications, databases, sensors, video, and audio streams-all will be reborn as services that live in cyberspace, assembling, and reassembling themselves on the fly to meet the tasks at hand. Once plugged into the grid, a desktop machine will draw computational horsepower from all the other computers on the grid.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: What is the Colossus Grid?
A: ColossusXT is an anonymous blockchain through obfuscation, along with utilization of I2P (Armis). These features will protect end-user privacy as ColossusXT evolves into the Colossus Grid. The Colossus Grid will connect devices in a peer-to-peer network enabling users and applications to rent the cycles and storage of other users’ machines. This marketplace of computing power and storage will exclusively run on COLX currency. These resources will be used to complete tasks requiring any amount of computation time and capacity, or allow end-users to store data anonymously across the COLX decentralized network. Today, such resources are supplied by entities such as centralized cloud providers which are constrained by closed networks, proprietary payment systems, and hard-coded provisioning operations. Any user ranging from a single PC owner to a large data center can share resources through Colossus Grid and get paid in COLX for their contributions. Renters of computing power or storage space, on the other hand, may do so at low prices compared to the usual market prices because they are only using resources that already exist.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Is there any estimated date for the grid? What will set you apart from the opposition?
A: We are hoping to have something released for the community in Q4 this year. The difference between other competitors is that ColossusXT is putting consumer privacy first and we’re actively in the process of working with federal and state agencies in the United States.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: How do you plan to get people to implement the technology? At your current rate of development, when do you foresee a minimum viable product being available?
A: We have been strategically networking with businesses, and we are currently undergoing the verification process in the United States to make bids on federal and state projects. We are working on an MVP and our goal is to have at least a portion of the Colossus Grid ready by Q4 2020.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: When we can expect any use-case for COLX? A company or service that uses COLX for its activities/tasks.
A: We’re aiming for Q4 of this year to have an MVP, throughout 2021 we will be strategically making bids on federal and state contracts in the United States with a goal to expand operations exponentially.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Are there any plans to be listed on the more prominent exchanges e.g binance, kraken?
A: Yes, we have applied to some of these exchanges that are considered Tier 1 or Tier 2 exchanges. Many of them upfront will tell you there are no fees associated with the listing, that is not entirely true most of the time. Regardless, have applied and are awaiting more responses as we move forward. Listing on these exchanges often requires that we cannot announce this information until ColossusXT is live on its platform.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Partnerships are the norm these days in crypto world. Which partnership would you consider feasible, if any, in order to grow the Colossus Grid project?
A: The Colossus Grid is a huge undertaking both in development and business partnerships. We are moving in both these directions strategically. One of the most important partnerships is not really a partnership but approval to bid on state and federal contracts. Working with the governments around the world will be a big part of the Colossus Grid use-case.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: If the ability to annonymise coins is turned off, can CLX still be marketed as a privacy coin? Do we have a date we can start using this feature again?
A: Yes and No. It’s frustrating right now having a lack of privacy for consumers as we don’t see privacy as a feature but a right. EVERY platform online should have some levels of privacy for their consumers, especially as technology continues to evolve and bad actors continue to use your personal information for their own nefarious purposes. Obfuscation will be implemented in the coming weeks, and Armis will follow suit shortly thereafter.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: When can we expect the grid to come out?
A: We are looking at releasing an MVP towards the end of the year. Stay tuned during Q3 and Q4 as we ramp on technical and business developments.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Can you tell the current budget for development work?
A: Much of the development work budget comes from Core team member's disposable income, we also use the self-funding treasury that Masternode owners vote on each month.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Will cold staking be implemented somedays? I like the model of Cardano. Hope you will implement kind of Cardano staking in our wallet. I would love the easiness.
A: ColossusXT staking has been enabled since 2017. We have calculators on the website that will estimate your average staking returns and you can join numerous pools to increase your staking power within the pools. Cold staking is on our radar and will make it into the roadmap when our budget allows us.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Which part of grid technology are you planning first to go live? Storage/RAM/CPU/GPU/all at once? Separately?
A: We will be rolling the Colossus Grid out in two phases. The first phase will be storage, and then we will roll out computing power (RAM/CPU/GPU).
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Is Armis I2P technology in development testphase I mean, I have read something like that… If Armis goes live, will there be some kind of option in deskopt wallet to transfer anonymous or will every transaction be fully anonymous like e.g. monero?
A: We recently had a testing phase with the community earlier this year, there will be another test phase with community participants who sign up. If you’re interested in this stay tuned on our socials and apply when the next testing phase happens All transactions will be fully anonymous behind Armis.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: What programming languate is being used for developing COLX? How well this programming language do you think is more suitable for developing crypto, in comparison with other programing languages?
A: C++ is what we’re using at ColossusXT. Each crypto project is different but with what we're developing at ColossusXT. We are best suited to utilize C++.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: What is the second biggest milestone other than launching the grid network for the team. What do you think of your competition like Golem network?
A: Armis will be a big milestone, and I don’t think we go back to our Polis partnership which allows users in Europe and Mexico (they do plan to expand to the US and other countries) the ability to spend their ColossusXT (COLX) wherever Mastercard is accepted. I don’t think the Golem network is taking consumer privacy far enough, in the blockchain industry I also see a lack of drive to push adoption within the United States. This is likely due to unclear regulations right now. ColossusXT is at the forefront of these issues and we intend to lead blockchain through these somewhat murky waters.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: I don’t have a lot of knowledge about crypto-technology… but are there any risks of sensitive data-hijacks through Colx infrastructure? Will the Colx-grid be available for individuals or only larger corporations, and how would one get access to the computing power?
A: There are always risks with technology. We are doing extensive testing and more testing prior to releasing anything. Consumer privacy is apart of the foundation of what we’re building at ColossusXT and we want to ensure any and all of your personal information is secure and private. As technology evolves, we will be right here evolving with it to ensure that consumer privacy protections are always in place.
The Colossus Grid will be available to anyone with a computer. You will access it through the desktop wallet.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Do you have any new exchange listings planned in the near future?
A: Yes, but unfortunately with these things, every day it’s not something we can often say before the exchange makes their own announcements. If you have certain exchanges that you prefer, do not be shy and tag us on Twitter letting us and the exchange know. You can also reach us everyday at all hours of the day and night on Discord and Telegram.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Given that Colx had no ICO, are we able to ramp development efforts in case we have potential partnership deal on the table?
A: It really depends. We strategically spend every dime we spend on development. We do not like even a single penny to be waisted, so we don’t move as fast as the projects that raised millions of dollars, but we continue moving none the less. Ramping up our development is something we are working on by securing additional funding and we’re currently working on securing funding. 😊
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: How is the project development advancing? What are your plans for the next 5 years and what more can we expect from ColossusXT?
A: Our development is continuing on at a steady pace, we’re looking to ramp this up over the next year as the Colossus Grid will take much of our time but we’re excited. Over the next 5 years, you can expect the Colossus Grid to be live in all forms (storage and computing power), Armis will be released and we will share many technical details on how this consumer privacy protection rivals some of the other privacy protections in the blockchain industry. We expect to be verified and approved to work with the agencies in the United States long before then as well and will be aggressively pursuing federal contracts to utilize the computing power of the Colossus Grid. In 5 years, we plan to be a key player not just in the blockchain industry, but throughout the world. If you do not know ColossusXT now, expect to in 5 years or less.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Users often care less about technology, but rather the value of the token. How do you manage to strike a balance between developing the technology and also improving the value of COLX? There are so many privacy coins now, all of them claiming to have better features that ColossusXT. Moving forward, what do the next 10 years look like for ColossusXT in navigating the wave of privacy projects coming. How can ColossusXT continue to shine in the midst of seemingly legit projects that have come to challenge ColossusXT like mimblewimble projects and Monero, Zcoin, ect.?

A: The Colossus Grid and Masternodes will have a strong relationship with each other. When the Colossus Grid goes live we expect the masternode demand to continue to rise. Masternodes are a great incentive mechanism to increase network strength and will play an important role within the Colossus Grid. The more masternodes online, the less available coins in the circulating supply; which we expect will eventually reflect ColossusXT (COLX) coin value.
Over the next 10 years, ColossusXT (COLX) will solidify itself as a key player in the blockchain industry, and outside the blockchain industry. Following our strategic business plans, we intend to be one of the first, if not the first to truly bring government and other businesses into the blockchain industry through the Colossus Grid. Armis will be our defining privacy feature, which we expect in time will begin to be adopted by other projects. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: How have the number of Masternodes (MNs) increased/decreased over time/in the past few years? What proportion (%) of MNs actively take part in Governance? How do you see the number of MNs increasing/decreasing in the next couple of years? Is there a trend upwards or downwards?
Is there a specific number (or range) of MNs the team would like to attain ideally? Is it better to have as many MNs as possible or is there a point at which too many MNs start to have an adverse effect on the performance of the blockchain?
Hope this wasn’t too many questions in one :), Ahmed

A: The number of masternodes in the active network is more or less the same, fluctuating around 200-220. About 40% - 50% of masternodes participate actively in governance (see https://governance.colossusxt.io). We expect a number of masternodes to grow as they will have additional benefits with Colossus Grid (see business plan: http://bit.ly/COLXBPLive).
As the team had no premines, only the dev fund can be used for masternodes which is hard to maintain due to actual budget flow. It’s better to have as many masternodes as possible for the network, there is no adverse effect.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Of all the milestones that $COLX has achieved since your humble beginnings, which do you consider to be the best of it all? What achievements do you feel proud most?
A: It’s often not mentioned but I’m very proud of our partnership with PolisPay, which allows ColossusXT community members to purchase Amazon, Spotify, and other gift cards with ColossusXT (COLX) through the Polis platform. You are also able to spend your COLX anywhere Mastercard is accepted, the card is available only for EU citizens right now and the Polis team hopes to bring in other countries in the future.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: There are problems that can slow down the course of a project such as the emergence of globalization, given the tighter budget, shorter implementation time requirements. My question is, How does $COLX resolve the issue?

A: Given the current situations around the world the Colossus Grid has more value than it ever has, and that value will continue to grow once we have released the Colossus Grid for consumers to share and utilize resources. You can already see from the [email protected] initiative that people are eager to share their computing resources to help researchers simulate different COVID19 simulations. We’ve always worked on a very small budget at ColossusXT starting with 0$ in funding and no pre-mine or ICO/IEO. This project was built for the community by the community, and as of lately we’ve actually been ramping up our business strategies and developments. Since we have all already worked remotely before the COVID19 pandemic, it interestingly allowed us more time to focus and achieve these goals as our day jobs allowed us to spend more time on ColossusXT.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: How will you fight with regulators who are trying to stop privacy coins?

A: We have an amazing legal team at ColossusXT, and they are on top of any new law or regulation that comes out. We’re not afraid of regulators and our legal team makes sure that everything we do for ColossusXT is law-abiding. It's time the world stops looking at privacy as a feature and as a right, especially when you read about different applications and platforms using your personal DATA for their benefit. ColossusXT will continue to push this, and we're prepared to lobby this to lawmakers. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: What type of utilities can $COLX give to users over its competitors like GOLM (computation) or STORJ (Data)?

A: The Colossus Grid has some major differences between Golem and Storj. One we’re a privacy-focused project. If you take a look at many of these applications and platforms today, in some way or another you’re giving up personal information, and/or geographic information. ColossusXT is focused on protecting consumer information, we do not look at privacy as a feature, we see privacy as a right, especially in the tech world today.
The second part of this question is that we’re currently in the verification process of registering with the United States federal and state governments so that we can legally bid on federal and state projects and work with different agencies. This will ensure that as the community members are sharing their idle resources, large corporations and businesses are using it. I’m not aware of the mentioned projects being registered in the United States or taking steps to work with the United States government.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: How will computing power and storage sharing look like, for an average user (marketplace, program download)? What are you currently working on, when can we expect MVP? TY
A: The marketplace and Colossus Grid will be inside the ColossusXT desktop wallet that you currently have now. The UI/UX will change some to allow the additional settings and tabs that will become available and we’re preparing an MVP right now and we hope to share those details with you over the next few months, ask us again in the Q3 AMA if you haven’t seen anything yet :)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: What would you say is the $COLX killer feature that sets it apart from the rest of the competition.
A: We believe that Armis is our killer feature. We recently had a beta this year with the community and will be moving forward later this year with Armis. ColossusXT consumers will have their geographic location and IP fully hidden behind the Armis layer for further security and anonymity for the transactions which will also take place in the Colossus Grid resource marketplace in the future.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: I have been a silent follower of $COLX and I must say that I'm truly impressed with how the team has been diligently working on the project. It'd be nice to have the community be part of something like a bounty or a social awareness contest. As this will not only attract more users to the platform but would also strengthen the bond within the community. When can we possibly expect a community project of this level? #spreadthegrid
A: We currently have a Gleam competition ongoing for social awareness, and we just hired a community manager to spread more community awareness and will be rolling on competitions more regularly. Every quarter we have an AMA on Reddit for the community to ask questions, or just gripe at us, and one person each quarter is awarded 100,000 COLX for participating in the AMA. As we deliver our targets and grow, we will shift more funds from development funds to marketing funds to raise further awareness.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: "Our main competitor is crypto adoption. We are all here to make it happen together.", this is quoted from a founder of a known crypto wallet. Do you see competition as something that strengthens the project as a whole or as a possible distraction due to pressure to be at the top of the crypto ecosystem?

A: This is a two scenario situation. Competition is good for ColossusXT, and we look at our main competitor in blockchain as Golem (GNT), having said that though too much competition or sometimes maximalist behavior isn’t good for crypto, many of these projects should be coming together to lobby lawmakers for laws and regulations that are good for the blockchain industry, as this is still an emerging market and the laws and regulations aren’t exactly in place at this time.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: "For people to believe in crypto, they need to understand the tangible benefits it offers to our society.", a remark made by a crypto project in the past. What exactly would be $COLX real life global benefits? And how do you plan on achieving this?
A: ColossusXT vision will be achievable when the Colossus Grid is released. We are currently in the process of registering with state and federal agencies in the United States, once we are registered to work with these agencies we will pursue contracts with the government, cybersecurity firms and colleges all around the United States, and the world to utilize the resources on the Colossus Grid. We’ve already started building business relationships for this very purpose.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: According to you how much time will it take for $COLX to get into mainstream adoption and execute all the plans set for this project?
A: It’s almost impossible to set a timeline on when the world/people will begin to adopt ColossusXT (COLX) and the Colossus Grid. We don’t believe that adoption for ColossusXT will happen before the Colossus Grid is live, and if I gave you an exact timeline for when or how long it will take you for the Colossus Grid to be adopted I would be lying to you, but we are already forming business relationships and making strategic moves to be able to bid, and work with state and federal agencies in the United States.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Does Tokens.net plan any kind of staking ($COLX or other coins)?
A: We will reach out to the tokens.net team and see if they have any plans to allow staking.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: How will you try to boost adoption of #COLX, how do you think you will motivate programmers to join opensource project?
A: The Colossus Grid will be available for anyone to use, or share their idle resources for other consumers to use. We will be focusing on providing these resources to state and federal governments, cybersecurity firms, and researchers all across the world. Certainly, we expect some community members to use these resources to mine different PoW cryptocurrencies, but the team at ColossusXT will be focused on bringing in large colleges and universities as well as big cybersecurity businesses that may need supercomputing power at 1/10th of the current prices. Our programmers are our only paid team members, and we pay them at a competitive rate. We’re looking to bring in some more programmers later this year.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Do you have any special development funds for programmers?
A: Sometimes we pay our programmers out of our own pocket, sometimes we pay them in ColossusXT. It really depends on what kind of agreements have been made. We have been aggressively pursuing different funding opportunities throughout 2020 so that we can expand our development team and in the future, we may have incentives to drive programmers into joining our team. Right now we just stick to a competitive pay scale within the industry.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Why Android Wallet Revision hasn't been done? Any problems?
A: The Android wallet revision took some time to be approved in the Google Playstore, but it has been released and live since June 15, 2020.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Whats the second biggest milestone other than the grid network for COLX team?
A: Armis is likely to be considered our second biggest milestone this year, although as I mentioned above this can easily be overshadowed by our Polis partnership which allows you to spend ColossusXT (COLX) anywhere Mastercard is accepted. Although the epay debit card ownership is currently restricted to certain countries (EU zone only), these restrictions will lift in time.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: How is COLX team going to contribute to crypto adoption, other than building a robust network?
A: We’re already in the process of verification to work with state and federal agencies. Adoption for blockchain projects isn’t going to move fast. I read a report just a few days ago about how scammers in the crypto industry stole over 2 million dollars worth of crypto just from the “Elon Musk” impersonations on Twitter.
We will continue to build our network, and seek out state and federal agencies as well as private cybersecurity firms that can utilize the Colossus Grid, we’re not just focused on making noise on social media, we intend to make noise throughout the entire world.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Are their industry partners to COLX that are awaiting your network to go live?
A: Yes, although I hesitate to go into too much detail here. We are talking with business leaders.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: The ongoing crisis affected the market badly, making many projects far from their targets. What is $COLX strategy in order to survive and pass through this crisis?
A: I agree it affected the market badly, especially the projects that raised hundreds of millions of dollars in crypto and held it through the entire market correction. ColossusXT strategy is different from those affected, we’ve always had a smaller budget than these large projects. We spend the money we have available very wisely, and we’re not in a hurry to grab something that sounds good without doing our due diligence. We make our moves very strategically.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: I gotta ask, what made $COLX decide to get listed on Tokens.net? What beneficial advantage does $COLX get in doing so? How about Tokens.net?
A: Tokens.Net is one of the best exchanges ColossusXT is listed at the moment in comparison to others in terms of volume.
  1. Tokens.net is one of the most secure and transparent exchanges out there, registered in the UK.
  2. The team behind the exchange has deep roots in the crypto/blockchain space, it was co-founded by Damian Merlak, a crypto-pioneer and co-founder of Bitstamp.
  3. Tokens.net provides free auto-trading tool / Market Making Bot. Their Dynamic Trading Rights concept adds transparency to trading volumes.
  4. They allow the community voting option of only truly decentralized projects after a thorough screening.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Hey everyone! What is the main purpose of the coin $COLX, does it have its own chain or is it some sort of an ERC-20 token? Thank you for the answers.
A: ColossusXT has never been an ERC-20 coin. We have been operating on our own mainnet since 2017. The purpose of ColossusXT (COLX) is to be the native currency of the Colossus Grid. This will allow users to share their idle resources on their computers, and consumers will rent/buy those resources to complete whatever they intend to use them for, from processing large DATA to running scientific simulations, to even mining PoW cryptocurrencies.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: When we can expect any usecase for COLX? A company or service that uses colx for its activities / tasks.
A: There are currently use cases now if your location allows you to utilize the Polis Pay app, or if you have a Polis Pay card you can buy things with ColossusXT (COLX). I myself have tested the card buying gas at a gas station. These are not ColossusXT’s primary focus though and much of our use case will not start until the Colossus Grid is live.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: What pairs will colx have to trade with on tokens.net // Will you connect #COLX with USDT EURS or BTC?
A: ColossusXT will be initially paired with Bitcoin (BTC). If the community would like different pairs, they can certainly request them and we will reach out to tokens.net and work to facilitate requests.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Will you try to convince users to trade on tokens.net if so how will you do it?
A: There is currently a gleam competition for users to sign up and trade on tokens.net. We “shill” tokens.net accordingly through social media to the ColossusXT community, but can’t really convince anyone to use a certain exchange, although we will try to push as many members to tokens.net as we can. We have many masternode holders who reside in the United States and they are not yet allowed to trade on tokens.net.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: How will you try to create liquidity for your pairs?
A: We would like to increase the adoption rate with real-world partnerships such as our partnership with PolisPay for the use of gift/debit cards. As the liquidity is linked with the use cases, supply/demand mechanics, we are also preparing to provide additional use cases of COLX for the crypto world in an innovative & pioneering way; for the time being, we can hint this as a side business till we deliver fully operational Colossus Grid.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: How big is a development team of #COLX?
A: The ColossusXT team is probably bigger than some people realize, partly because many of the team members are very private. We have 9 core members, 2 in-house developers, 3 Colossus Grid architects, and 2 Colossus Grid developers.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Do you have some security guys in the team?
A: Yes, although I’m hesitant to share too many personal details about team members. We have core team members who have been working in different fields of IT security for several years.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Q: Since #COLX is planning on having some sort of a marketplace where you can take advantage of computing resources and the blockchain as well, are there any plans on introducing smart contracts? Will it help the grid? Is there a place for it?
A: This has been mentioned a few times in the past so it’s something on our radar, it’s currently not in the development timeline as the Colossus Grid is a massive amount of work. There may be a place for it as the blockchain industry evolves, and I can certainly see some cases where a smart contract can add some value to the Colossus Grid.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Important Information:
Website
Whitepaper
Roadmap
Business Plan
Wiki
Governance
Partners
GitHub
What is ColossusXT? (YouTube)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Follow ColossusXT on:
Twitter
Facebook
Telegram
Discord
Forums
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
AMA History:
2018 Q1 2018 Q2 2018 Q3 2018 Q4
2019 Q1 2019 Q2 2019 Q3 2019 Q4
2020 Q1
submitted by PioyPioyPioy to ColossuscoinX [link] [comments]

Numbers on the screen or how digital payment systems make the market fair?

Numbers on the screen or how digital payment systems make the market fair?

https://preview.redd.it/6m1gp2mvotx41.png?width=1160&format=png&auto=webp&s=a83f0346d8008c17968d6a240cfba8fe3fe4e2aa
Continuing the trend of practicality characteristic of the XXI century, paper money is gradually disappearing from our lives, giving way to more practical digital storage. However, the digitized banking that we now use every day is still far from perfect. For starters, it is completely controlled by third parties. No one owns the numbers they see on the screen — control is entirely owned by third parties, such as banks.
Banks create money out of thin air, and credit is a prime example of this. Money is no longer printed when someone takes out an overdraft or mortgage-it is simply created out of nothing. Moreover, these banks charge disproportionately high fees for the services they provide, and these services are outdated and impractical today.
For example, it is impractical to pay a Commission to spend your money abroad, as it is impractical to wait a few days to verify the transfer of a small amount from You to your relative. All this makes no sense in the interconnected and instantaneous world in which We live today.
Thus, the monetary system has ceased to be practical, it is replaced by a higher form of value storage. In this particular case, it is replaced by a faster and safer system that eliminates expensive operations and gives control to the person.
https://i.redd.it/quc2bgmxotx41.gif
Money that you have in your Bank account can be considered a virtual currency since it does not have a physical form and exists only in the Bank book. If they lose the book, your money will simply disappear. These are just numbers that you see on the screen. The numbers are stored on the hard drives of Bank servers.

https://i.redd.it/4nvhydtzotx41.gif
Do you open a regular app and think you have money? They are just bytes of the computer system. Today’s global payment infrastructure moves money from one payment system to another through a series of internal Deposit transfers between financial institutions. Since these transfers occur in different systems with a low level of coordination, the calculation of funds is slow, often 3–5 days, capturing liquidity.

How do payments work?

When you make a money transfer, for example, from your Bank card to the Bank card of a friend or acquaintance, you see an instant transfer, so to speak, moving numbers from you to the Recipient. For the user, the transfer is carried out instantly, and the exchange of obligations between the participants of the process takes place within 3–7 days, the User does not know about it and hardly ever thinks about it.

https://preview.redd.it/rl4aai81ptx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=cdfa10f0d68442aac84c14e3bae5a52e92651878
When you make a payment at a supermarket or any other point of sale, at the time of payment, information from the POS-terminal is sent to the acquiring Bank — then the acquiring Bank sends a request that passes through the payment system (Visa or MasterCard) and then transmitted to Your Bank, which confirms the operation. At this point, there is no write-off of funds. The funds are temporarily held, and the actual withdrawal will take place within a few days, the maximum processing time is up to 30 days.
https://i.redd.it/8njxgxq2ptx41.gif

Currency transactions and payments abroad

You may have noticed that after making a transaction in a different currency, such as yen or dirhams, or any other currency that differs from the currency of your account or buying an item abroad, the amount charged may differ from the amount that was reflected immediately after payment.

Why is this happening?

As soon As you have made a transaction with Your Bank card — the local Bank transfers the information to the payment system: Visa or MasterCard — the payment system converts the currency used into the billing currency.
Billing currency — the currency that will be used for payment with the payment system by your Bank that issued the card. For the US, the billing currency is the dollar, in Europe — the Euro.
The billing currency may also differ depending on the issuing Bank — the Bank that issued your debit card. For example, some banks use the billing currency — Euro when making payments with MasterCard cards in the United States, which will lead to additional costs when converting euros into dollars.
If the payment is in other currencies, the payment scheme will become more complicated and, accordingly, its cost will be more expensive. The transfer rate from one settlement currency to another is set by the payment system: Visa and MasterCard.
If the currency of your Bankcard is the same as the currency of the payment system, the payment will take place without additional operations. For example, You have a dollar card, you make a payment in dollars in the United States, and if you make a payment with a dollar card in Europe, your Bank will convert the amount at its exchange rate, which will lead to additional costs. There are exceptions, some European banks can use dollars for settlements, but this is more an exception than a rule.
Also, if, for example, you pay for purchases in China using a Bank card in euros, then double conversion is inevitable.
Thus, payment in dollars is universal all over the world, except for the European Union countries. The dollar is a global currency and is therefore often used for binding in international settlements.
Now we understand that due to differences in the account currency and the differences in the VISA or MasterCard payment system, additional conversions may occur, which will lead to additional bank fees. as a result, the actual payment amount will differ from the amount debited from your card.
In addition to paying for conversion in the payment system and paying for currency conversion in your Bank, some banks charge an additional fee for conducting a cross-border transaction.

Where do we lose money when making debit card payments?


https://i.redd.it/tykhrd56ptx41.gif
  1. Currency conversion by the payment system;
  2. Euro-Dollar, or in the case of processing payment via MasterCard in Turkey, Turkish lira-Euro and additional conversion on the side of the issuing Bank (your Bank) Euro — Dollar.
  3. Currency conversion by an acquiring bank;
  4. The difference between the exchange rate on the purchase date and the write-off date. We purchased at a rate of 0.91 euros per dollar, and the write-off occurred at a rate of 0.94 euros per dollar.
  5. A large number of currency conversions.
  6. The greater the number of them, the more we will lose when buying. For example, when paying in the UAE or China, buying a product for the local currency, we understand that the number of conversions increases several times.
If we touch on the topic of international translations, we will encounter additional nuances:
  • This is the payment processing time. International payments can be processed within 3–5 days, as mentioned above, which in our dynamic time — it interferes with the comfortable use of the system.
  • Restrictions on the amounts;
  • Possible requirements for certain documentation for payment confirmation;
  • Additional fees and commissions, sometimes hidden fees.
It is not always possible to make a transfer quickly and when necessary due to these restrictions. All this confirms the complexity of the operations and additional commissions that the user pays.

Сryptocurrency exchanges

And now back to the numbers on the screen, this topic affects not only banks but also centralized cryptocurrency exchanges:
  • You top up your Deposit on the exchange in cryptocurrency-then you use numbers inside the exchange, and real funds are most often stored on “cold storage” for which administrators or other responsible persons are responsible.
  • Only when you make a withdrawal from the exchange to your wallet-you are sent real funds (tokens or cryptocurrency).
The same applies to centralized applications and online services that deal with cryptocurrencies:
There are many services, both online and apps, that are centralized, regardless of what they will be called: Bitcoin wallet or bitcoin exchange. This means that when you add funds to an account in such a wallet, the funds are stored on the developecompany’s side. In simple words, all your funds are stored in the wallets of the system’s creators.
If you use a centralized app, you have a risk of losing funds. Although the application is called cryptocurrency, it does not affect its main principles — it is decentralization.
In other words, using systems where there is a Central authority, especially in the cryptocurrency market — the risk increases, so we recommend using decentralized systems for storing currency to reduce risks to a minimum.
Decentralization is the process of redistributing, dispersing functions, forces, power, people, or things from a Central location or governing body. Centralization is a condition in which the right to make the most important decisions remains with the highest levels of management.

Peer-to-peer payment systems

The opposite and standard of security and independence are peer-to-peer payment systems. Using the application-level network Protocol, clients running on multiple computers connect to form a peer-to-peer network.

https://preview.redd.it/ojcg4fz7ptx41.png?width=601&format=png&auto=webp&s=6cc81d1617b0cb64a3f5c7cc6d06a78354386f8c
There are no dedicated servers in such a network, and each node is both a client and performs server functions. In contrast to the client-server architecture, this organization allows you to maintain the network operability with any number and any combination of available nodes. All nodes are members of the network.

https://preview.redd.it/npttc3a9ptx41.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=0f2dee1e5b19436a847dca96e2b3b7f22b801b57
Tkeycoin is a decentralized peer-to-peer payment system based on p2p principles and the concept of electronic cash. P2P technology is a fairer means of mutual settlements between users and companies around the world. Modern payment systems are imperfect and may depend on the will of high-ranking officials.
The main goal of Tkeycoin is to create universal products that will make financial transactions more accessible, profitable and secure.

https://i.redd.it/gk6j0m9bptx41.gif

What do decentralized systems protect against?

Using decentralized tools, for example, a local Tkeycoin wallet or a Multi-currency blockchain tkeyspace wallet — Your funds belong only to You and only You can use them, which eliminates the risks of third-party bankruptcy, and such a decentralized architecture can also protect against natural disasters. Given that there is no central server that can be damaged in a natural disaster, the system can work even if there are 2 nodes.

https://i.redd.it/sb6i2ladptx41.gif
In addition to force majeure situations, you protect your funds from theft and any sanctions from third parties-in our time, this is very important. The owner of Tkeycoin does not need Bank branches, does not need additional verifications, and does not need permission to use, transfer, or even transport Tkeycoin. You can easily carry $1 million worth of Tkeycoin in your pocket and even in theory not know any troubles.

https://preview.redd.it/uvw9vfyeptx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=14b89acca3568fdc5eb82d986aaa2710219ced91
Besides, it is extremely convenient and safe to store even multibillion-dollar capital in Tkeycoin. Imagine that you have a lot, a lot of money, and you need a safe place to store it. Where do you apply? Of course, the Swiss Bank, Yes, but it can easily freeze your accounts and you can easily lose your savings. In recent years, many banks are actively fighting against gray non-cash funds (including offshore ones), and every month more and more legal proceedings are organized on this basis.

https://preview.redd.it/vodiuq5gptx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=31ab44da4431b0159ef1213db7e37c6fd92d5b0a
The fact is that serious money, for the most part, has a gray tinge, and only a tiny fraction of billions and millions are clean for the law. That is why their owners are often called to court, subjected to pressure, forced to leave the country, and so on. If your money is stored in Tkeycoin, you will not be subjected to such pressure and will avoid the lion’s share of troubles that usually accompany accounts with many zeros.
Using peer-to-peer systems — you will not be called by a Bank Manager and require documents or a fraudster who asks for Your card number and SMS for confirmation. This is simply not the case, wallets are encrypted, and using different addresses guarantees privacy.
As for fees for transfers, there are no Visa or Mastercard payment systems, as well as additional fees that we discussed above.

How are payments made in the Tkeycoin peer-to-peer payment system?


https://i.redd.it/9ftct10iptx41.gif
As soon as you sign a transaction, it is sent to the blockchain and the miners are engaged in its confirmation, for which they take a symbolic Commission. Let’s look at an example, the key rate is $1, the transfer fee will be 0.00001970 TKEY or 0.00000174 TKEY.
0.00001970 TKEY=$0.00001970 0.00000174 TKEY=$0.00000174
Accordingly, commissions are almost zero. In Europe, on average, you will pay $15–20 for a small Bank transfer.
For example, now sending 1 million dollars to BTC, You will pay a Commission in the area of ≈3–8 dollars. Just think, 1 million dollars, without restrictions, risks, and sanctions, and most importantly, the transaction will be the available day today, and you paid an average of ≈5 dollars for the transfer.

Transactions in the Tkeycoin blockchain

Now let’s touch on the topic of how a transaction in the blockchain goes. Once you have sent a transaction, it will be available to the Recipient. The transaction takes place instantly and the User sees not” numbers on the screen”, but real funds-cryptocurrency. This is very convenient when you make any transactions and the Recipient needs to make sure that the payment came.
In the full node-there is a choice of confirmation blocks — this is the amount after which you can use the received cryptocurrency. When sending, you can select the number of confirmations:
• 2 blocks≈10 minutes • 4 block≈40 minutes • 6 blocks≈60 minutes • 12 blocks≈120 minutes • 24 blocks≈4 hours • 48 blocks≈8 hours • 144 blocks≈24 hours • 504 blocks≈3 days • 1008 blocks≈7 days
As we can see, you can also set a weekly confirmation if necessary. The minimum recommended number is 3 blocks. by default, the full node (local wallet) has 6 blocks installed. The presence of this number of confirmations ensures that Your block will not be forged and will be accepted by the network.
Each new transaction that receives network approval is sent to mempool, where it waits for miners to confirm it. When a miner takes a transaction to include it in the next block, it automatically receives the first confirmation.

Generating blocks in the TKEY network

A block in the TKEY network is generated within 6–10 minutes. the network automatically corrects the complexity and time of block formation. Thousands of transactions or a single transaction can be placed in a block.

https://i.redd.it/f9d17k8uptx41.gif
Transactions work faster in the TKEYSPACE app because we have already enabled new algorithms and this is now the fastest and most convenient way to exchange various digital currencies.

https://preview.redd.it/nnz5krdvptx41.png?width=1400&format=png&auto=webp&s=fee452ae6389c8f46d97357777193ed2b10bc4bc
Anyway, using the full node is also one of the safest ways to store and send Tkeycoin cryptocurrency, and most importantly, the full node stores a full copy of the entire blockchain, which benefits the network and provides protection from information forgery.
The more popular the project becomes, the more load is placed on the network itself. For example, 10,000 transactions passed in one block that was processed quickly, while the other 10–20 transactions in another block hung for a longer time, so temporary “pits” may appear. To deal with them, we are working on implementing additional chains-separate chains that are created for cross-transactions, which ensures fast payments under heavy load.
For the global system — we get a shipment around the world in 6–10 minutes, in cross-chains in 10 seconds. In comparison with the global payment system, which processes cross — border payments within 3–5 days, this is a huge advantage. If we add liquidity to this, we will get a perfect payment system.
https://preview.redd.it/2d0uu4gxptx41.png?width=1200&format=png&auto=webp&s=ae5f2f0bc8b7c7dedd1814eb32e97092a6330c3a
Also, you should not forget that if you did not sync with the network and sent a transaction, the transaction may hang in its memory pool and you will have to perform several actions to solve this situation. Here we must understand that syncing with the network is an important point because if you have a connection failure in the Internet Bank, the payment will also not be processed. After all, it will not be sent to a specialist for confirmation.
If you are currently experiencing any delays with transactions, this is due to the transition of CPU mining to GPU, as soon as miners switch to new mining methods, the confirmation of blocks will be consistently fast.
In conclusion: blockchain is a new technology and many terms, concepts and how it all works are still difficult for many to understand and this is normal from innovation.
In many countries, the word cryptocurrency and blockchain are synonymous and no one wants to understand the reality, most people believe that if the blockchain, it means it is related to trading on the cryptocurrency exchange. No one thinks about the real usefulness of certain solutions that will become commonplace for Us in the future.
For example, the Internet banking system dates back to the ’80s of the last century, when the Home Banking system was created in the United States. This system allowed depositors to check their accounts by connecting to the Bank’s computer via their phone. In the future, as the Internet and Internet technologies develop, banks are beginning to introduce systems that allow depositors to get information about their accounts via the Internet. For the first time, the service of transferring funds from accounts was introduced in 1994 in the United States by the Stanford Federal Credit Union, and in 1995 the first virtual Bank was created — Security First Network Bank. But, to the disappointment of the founders of the project, it failed because of strong distrust from potential customers, who, at that time, did not trust such an innovation.
Only in 2001, Bank of America became the first among all banks that provide e-banking services, the whole user base for this service exceeded 2 million customers. At that time, this figure was about 20 % of all Bank customers. And in October of the same year, 2001, and the same Bank of America took the bar in 3 million money transfers made using online banking services for a total amount of more than 1 billion US dollars. Currently, in Western Europe and America, more than 50% of the entire adult population uses e-banking services, and this figure reaches 90% among adult Internet users.
Life changes, and in the bustle of everyday work — we do not even notice how quickly all processes change.
We are experiencing a technological revolution that is inevitable.

https://i.redd.it/afcfj3rzptx41.gif
submitted by tkeycoin to Tkeycoin_Official [link] [comments]

Searching for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency

Searching for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
For someone first starting out as a cryptocurrency investor, finding a trustworthy manual for screening a cryptocurrency’s merits is nonexistent as we are still in the early, Wild West days of the cryptocurrency market. One would need to become deeply familiar with the inner workings of blockchain to be able to perform the bare minimum due diligence.
One might believe, over time, that finding the perfect cryptocurrency may be nothing short of futile. If a cryptocurrency purports infinite scalability, then it is probably either lightweight with limited features or it is highly centralized among a limited number of nodes that perform consensus services especially Proof of Stake or Delegated Proof of Stake. Similarly, a cryptocurrency that purports comprehensive privacy may have technical obstacles to overcome if it aims to expand its applications such as in smart contracts. The bottom line is that it is extremely difficult for a cryptocurrency to have all important features jam-packed into itself.
The cryptocurrency space is stuck in the era of the “dial-up internet” in a manner of speaking. Currently blockchain can’t scale – not without certain tradeoffs – and it hasn’t fully resolved certain intractable issues such as user-unfriendly long addresses and how the blockchain size is forever increasing to name two.
In other words, we haven’t found the ultimate cryptocurrency. That is, we haven’t found the mystical unicorn cryptocurrency that ushers the era of decentralization while eschewing all the limitations of traditional blockchain systems.
“But wait – what about Ethereum once it implements sharding?”
“Wouldn’t IOTA be able to scale infinitely with smart contracts through its Qubic offering?”
“Isn’t Dash capable of having privacy, smart contracts, and instantaneous transactions?”
Those thoughts and comments may come from cryptocurrency investors who have done their research. It is natural for the informed investors to invest in projects that are believed to bring cutting edge technological transformation to blockchain. Sooner or later, the sinking realization will hit that any variation of the current blockchain technology will always likely have certain limitations.
Let us pretend that there indeed exists a unicorn cryptocurrency somewhere that may or may not be here yet. What would it look like, exactly? Let us set the 5 criteria of the unicorn cryptocurrency:
Unicorn Criteria
(1) Perfectly solves the blockchain trilemma:
o Infinite scalability
o Full security
o Full decentralization
(2) Zero or minimal transaction fee
(3) Full privacy
(4) Full smart contract capabilities
(5) Fair distribution and fair governance
For each of the above 5 criteria, there would not be any middle ground. For example, a cryptocurrency with just an in-protocol mixer would not be considered as having full privacy. As another example, an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) may possibly violate criterion (5) since with an ICO the distribution and governance are often heavily favored towards an oligarchy – this in turn would defy the spirit of decentralization that Bitcoin was found on.
There is no cryptocurrency currently that fits the above profile of the unicorn cryptocurrency. Let us examine an arbitrary list of highly hyped cryptocurrencies that meet the above list at least partially. The following list is by no means comprehensive but may be a sufficient sampling of various blockchain implementations:
Bitcoin (BTC)
Bitcoin is the very first and the best known cryptocurrency that started it all. While Bitcoin is generally considered extremely secure, it suffers from mining centralization to a degree. Bitcoin is not anonymous, lacks smart contracts, and most worrisomely, can only do about 7 transactions per seconds (TPS). Bitcoin is not the unicorn notwithstanding all the Bitcoin maximalists.
Ethereum (ETH)
Ethereum is widely considered the gold standard of smart contracts aside from its scalability problem. Sharding as part of Casper’s release is generally considered to be the solution to Ethereum’s scalability problem.
The goal of sharding is to split up validating responsibilities among various groups or shards. Ethereum’s sharding comes down to duplicating the existing blockchain architecture and sharing a token. This does not solve the core issue and simply kicks the can further down the road. After all, full nodes still need to exist one way or another.
Ethereum’s blockchain size problem is also an issue as will be explained more later in this article.
As a result, Ethereum is not the unicorn due to its incomplete approach to scalability and, to a degree, security.
Dash
Dash’s masternodes are widely considered to be centralized due to their high funding requirements, and there are accounts of a pre-mine in the beginning. Dash is not the unicorn due to its questionable decentralization.
Nano
Nano boasts rightfully for its instant, free transactions. But it lacks smart contracts and privacy, and it may be exposed to well orchestrated DDOS attacks. Therefore, it goes without saying that Nano is not the unicorn.
EOS
While EOS claims to execute millions of transactions per seconds, a quick glance reveals centralized parameters with 21 nodes and a questionable governance system. Therefore, EOS fails to achieve the unicorn status.
Monero (XMR)
One of the best known and respected privacy coins, Monero lacks smart contracts and may fall short of infinite scalability due to CryptoNote’s design. The unicorn rank is out of Monero’s reach.
IOTA
IOTA’s scalability is based on the number of transactions the network processes, and so its supposedly infinite scalability would fluctuate and is subject to the whims of the underlying transactions. While IOTA’s scalability approach is innovative and may work in the long term, it should be reminded that the unicorn cryptocurrency has no middle ground. The unicorn cryptocurrency would be expected to scale infinitely on a consistent basis from the beginning.
In addition, IOTA’s Masked Authenticated Messaging (MAM) feature does not bring privacy to the masses in a highly convenient manner. Consequently, the unicorn is not found with IOTA.

PascalCoin as a Candidate for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
Please allow me to present a candidate for the cryptocurrency unicorn: PascalCoin.
According to the website, PascalCoin claims the following:
“PascalCoin is an instant, zero-fee, infinitely scalable, and decentralized cryptocurrency with advanced privacy and smart contract capabilities. Enabled by the SafeBox technology to become the world’s first blockchain independent of historical operations, PascalCoin possesses unlimited potential.”
The above summary is a mouthful to be sure, but let’s take a deep dive on how PascalCoin innovates with the SafeBox and more. Before we do this, I encourage you to first become acquainted with PascalCoin by watching the following video introduction:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=4&v=F25UU-0W9Dk
The rest of this section will be split into 10 parts in order to illustrate most of the notable features of PascalCoin. Naturally, let’s start off with the SafeBox.
Part #1: The SafeBox
Unlike traditional UTXO-based cryptocurrencies in which the blockchain records the specifics of each transaction (address, sender address, amount of funds transferred, etc.), the blockchain in PascalCoin is only used to mutate the SafeBox. The SafeBox is a separate but equivalent cryptographic data structure that snapshots account balances. PascalCoin’s blockchain is comparable to a machine that feeds the most important data – namely, the state of an account – into the SafeBox. Any node can still independently compute and verify the cumulative Proof-of-Work required to construct the SafeBox.
The PascalCoin whitepaper elegantly highlights the unique historical independence that the SafeBox possesses:
“While there are approaches that cryptocurrencies could use such as pruning, warp-sync, "finality checkpoints", UTXO-snapshotting, etc, there is a fundamental difference with PascalCoin. Their new nodes can only prove they are on most-work-chain using the infinite history whereas in PascalCoin, new nodes can prove they are on the most-work chain without the infinite history.”
Some cryptocurrency old-timers might instinctively balk at the idea of full nodes eschewing the entire history for security, but such a reaction would showcase a lack of understanding on what the SafeBox really does.
A concrete example would go a long way to best illustrate what the SafeBox does. Let’s say I input the following operations in my calculator:
5 * 5 – 10 / 2 + 5
It does not take a genius to calculate the answer, 25. Now, the expression “5 \ 5 – 10 / 2 + 5”* would be forever imbued on a traditional blockchain’s history. But the SafeBox begs to differ. It says that the expression “5 \ 5 – 10 / 2 + 5”* should instead be simply “25” so as preserve simplicity, time, and space. In other words, the SafeBox simply preserves the account balance.
But some might still be unsatisfied and claim that if one cannot trace the series of operations (transactions) that lead to the final number (balance) of 25, the blockchain is inherently insecure.
Here are four important security aspects of the SafeBox that some people fail to realize:
(1) SafeBox Follows the Longest Chain of Proof-of-Work
The SafeBox mutates itself per 100 blocks. Each new SafeBox mutation must reference both to the previous SafeBox mutation and the preceding 100 blocks in order to be valid, and the resultant hash of the new mutated SafeBox must then be referenced by each of the new subsequent blocks, and the process repeats itself forever.
The fact that each new SafeBox mutation must reference to the previous SafeBox mutation is comparable to relying on the entire history. This is because the previous SafeBox mutation encapsulates the result of cumulative entire history except for the 100 blocks which is why each new SafeBox mutation requires both the previous SafeBox mutation and the preceding 100 blocks.
So in a sense, there is a single interconnected chain of inflows and outflows, supported by Byzantine Proof-of-Work consensus, instead of the entire history of transactions.
More concretely, the SafeBox follows the path of the longest chain of Proof-of-Work simply by design, and is thus cryptographically equivalent to the entire history even without tracing specific operations in the past. If the chain is rolled back with a 51% attack, only the attacker’s own account(s) in the SafeBox can be manipulated as is explained in the next part.
(2) A 51% Attack on PascalCoin Functions the Same as Others
A 51% attack on PascalCoin would work in a similar way as with other Proof-of-Work cryptocurrencies. An attacker cannot modify a transaction in the past without affecting the current SafeBox hash which is accepted by all honest nodes.
Someone might claim that if you roll back all the current blocks plus the 100 blocks prior to the SafeBox’s mutation, one could create a forged SafeBox with different balances for all accounts. This would be incorrect as one would be able to manipulate only his or her own account(s) in the SafeBox with a 51% attack – just as is the case with other UTXO cryptocurrencies. The SafeBox stores the balances of all accounts which are in turn irreversibly linked only to their respective owners’ private keys.
(3) One Could Preserve the Entire History of the PascalCoin Blockchain
No blockchain data in PascalCoin is ever deleted even in the presence of the SafeBox. Since the SafeBox is cryptographically equivalent to a full node with the entire history as explained above, PascalCoin full nodes are not expected to contain infinite history. But for whatever reason(s) one may have, one could still keep all the PascalCoin blockchain history as well along with the SafeBox as an option even though it would be redundant.
Without storing the entire history of the PascalCoin blockchain, you can still trace the specific operations of the 100 blocks prior to when the SafeBox absorbs and reflects the net result (a single balance for each account) from those 100 blocks. But if you’re interested in tracing operations over a longer period in the past – as redundant as that may be – you’d have the option to do so by storing the entire history of the PascalCoin blockchain.
(4) The SafeBox is Equivalent to the Entire Blockchain History
Some skeptics may ask this question: “What if the SafeBox is forever lost? How would you be able to verify your accounts?” Asking this question is tantamount to asking to what would happen to Bitcoin if all of its entire history was erased. The result would be chaos, of course, but the SafeBox is still in line with the general security model of a traditional blockchain with respect to black swans.
Now that we know the security of the SafeBox is not compromised, what are the implications of this new blockchain paradigm? A colorful illustration as follows still wouldn’t do justice to the subtle revolution that the SafeBox ushers. The automobiles we see on the street are the cookie-and-butter representation of traditional blockchain systems. The SafeBox, on the other hand, supercharges those traditional cars to become the Transformers from Michael Bay’s films.
The SafeBox is an entirely different blockchain architecture that is impressive in its simplicity and ingenuity. The SafeBox’s design is only the opening act for PascalCoin’s vast nuclear arsenal. If the above was all that PascalCoin offers, it still wouldn’t come close to achieving the unicorn status but luckily, we have just scratched the surface. Please keep on reading on if you want to learn how PascalCoin is going to shatter the cryptocurrency industry into pieces. Buckle down as this is going to be a long read as we explore further about the SafeBox’s implications.
Part #2: 0-Confirmation Transactions
To begin, 0-confirmation transactions are secure in PascalCoin thanks to the SafeBox.
The following paraphrases an explanation of PascalCoin’s 0-confirmations from the whitepaper:
“Since PascalCoin is not a UTXO-based currency but rather a State-based currency thanks to the SafeBox, the security guarantee of 0-confirmation transactions are much stronger than in UTXO-based currencies. For example, in Bitcoin if a merchant accepts a 0-confirmation transaction for a coffee, the buyer can simply roll that transaction back after receiving the coffee but before the transaction is confirmed in a block. The way the buyer does this is by re-spending those UTXOs to himself in a new transaction (with a higher fee) thus invalidating them for the merchant. In PascalCoin, this is virtually impossible since the buyer's transaction to the merchant is simply a delta-operation to debit/credit a quantity from/to accounts respectively. The buyer is unable to erase or pre-empt this two-sided, debit/credit-based transaction from the network’s pending pool until it either enters a block for confirmation or is discarded with respect to both sender and receiver ends. If the buyer tries to double-spend the coffee funds after receiving the coffee but before they clear, the double-spend transaction will not propagate the network since nodes cannot propagate a double-spending transaction thanks to the debit/credit nature of the transaction. A UTXO-based transaction is initially one-sided before confirmation and therefore is more exposed to one-sided malicious schemes of double spending.”
Phew, that explanation was technical but it had to be done. In summary, PascalCoin possesses the only secure 0-confirmation transactions in the cryptocurrency industry, and it goes without saying that this means PascalCoin is extremely fast. In fact, PascalCoin is capable of 72,000 TPS even prior to any additional extensive optimizations down the road. In other words, PascalCoin is as instant as it gets and gives Nano a run for its money.
Part #3: Zero Fee
Let’s circle back to our discussion of PascalCoin’s 0-confirmation capability. Here’s a little fun magical twist to PascalCoin’s 0-confirmation magic: 0-confirmation transactions are zero-fee. As in you don’t pay a single cent in fee for each 0-confirmation! There is just a tiny downside: if you create a second transaction in a 5-minute block window then you’d need to pay a minimal fee. Imagine using Nano but with a significantly stronger anti-DDOS protection for spam! But there shouldn’t be any complaint as this fee would amount to 0.0001 Pascal or $0.00002 based on the current price of a Pascal at the time of this writing.
So, how come the fee for blazingly fast transactions is nonexistent? This is where the magic of the SafeBox arises in three ways:
(1) PascalCoin possesses the secure 0-confirmation feature as discussed above that enables this speed.
(2) There is no fee bidding competition of transaction priority typical in UTXO cryptocurrencies since, once again, PascalCoin operates on secure 0-confirmations.
(3) There is no fee incentive needed to run full nodes on behalf of the network’s security beyond the consensus rewards.
Part #4: Blockchain Size
Let’s expand more on the third point above, using Ethereum as an example. Since Ethereum’s launch in 2015, its full blockchain size is currently around 2 TB, give or take, but let’s just say its blockchain size is 100 GB for now to avoid offending the Ethereum elitists who insist there are different types of full nodes that are lighter. Whoever runs Ethereum’s full nodes would expect storage fees on top of the typical consensus fees as it takes significant resources to shoulder Ethereum’s full blockchain size and in turn secure the network. What if I told you that PascalCoin’s full blockchain size will never exceed few GBs after thousands of years? That is just what the SafeBox enables PascalCoin to do so. It is estimated that by 2072, PascalCoin’s full nodes will only be 6 GB which is low enough not to warrant any fee incentives for hosting full nodes. Remember, the SafeBox is an ultra-light cryptographic data structure that is cryptographically equivalent to a blockchain with the entire transaction history. In other words, the SafeBox is a compact spreadsheet of all account balances that functions as PascalCoin’s full node!
Not only does the SafeBox’s infinitesimal memory size helps to reduce transaction fees by phasing out any storage fees, but it also paves the way for true decentralization. It would be trivial for every PascalCoin user to opt a full node in the form of a wallet. This is extreme decentralization at its finest since the majority of users of other cryptocurrencies ditch full nodes due to their burdensome sizes. It is naïve to believe that storage costs would reduce enough to the point where hosting full nodes are trivial. Take a look at the following chart outlining the trend of storage cost.

* https://www.backblaze.com/blog/hard-drive-cost-per-gigabyte/
As we can see, storage costs continue to decrease but the descent is slowing down as is the norm with technological improvements. In the meantime, blockchain sizes of other cryptocurrencies are increasing linearly or, in the case of smart contract engines like Ethereum, parabolically. Imagine a cryptocurrency smart contract engine like Ethereum garnering worldwide adoption; how do you think Ethereum’s size would look like in the far future based on the following chart?


https://i.redd.it/k57nimdjmo621.png

Ethereum’s future blockchain size is not looking pretty in terms of sustainable security. Sharding is not a fix for this issue since there still needs to be full nodes but that is a different topic for another time.
It is astonishing that the cryptocurrency community as a whole has passively accepted this forever-expanding-blockchain-size problem as an inescapable fate.
PascalCoin is the only cryptocurrency that has fully escaped the death vortex of forever expanding blockchain size. Its blockchain size wouldn’t exceed 10 GB even after many hundreds of years of worldwide adoption. Ethereum’s blockchain size after hundreds of years of worldwide adoption would make fine comedy.
Part #5: Simple, Short, and Ordinal Addresses
Remember how the SafeBox works by snapshotting all account balances? As it turns out, the account address system is almost as cool as the SafeBox itself.
Imagine yourself in this situation: on a very hot and sunny day, you’re wandering down the street across from your house and ran into a lemonade stand – the old-fashioned kind without any QR code or credit card terminal. The kid across you is selling a lemonade cup for 1 Pascal with a poster outlining the payment address as 5471-55. You flip out your phone and click “Send” with 1 Pascal to the address 5471-55; viola, exactly one second later you’re drinking your lemonade without paying a cent for the transaction fee!
The last thing one wants to do is to figure out how to copy/paste to, say, the following address 1BoatSLRHtKNngkdXEeobR76b53LETtpyT on the spot wouldn’t it? Gone are the obnoxiously long addresses that plague all cryptocurrencies. The days of those unreadable addresses will be long gone – it has to be if blockchain is to innovate itself for the general public. EOS has a similar feature for readable addresses but in a very limited manner in comparison, and nicknames attached to addresses in GUIs don’t count since blockchain-wide compatibility wouldn’t hold.
Not only does PascalCoin has the neat feature of having addresses (called PASAs) that amount to up to 6 or 7 digits, but PascalCoin can also incorporate in-protocol address naming as opposed to GUI address nicknames. Suppose I want to order something from Amazon using Pascal; I simply search the word “Amazon” then the corresponding account number shows up. Pretty neat, right?
The astute reader may gather that PascalCoin’s address system makes it necessary to commoditize addresses, and he/she would be correct. Some view this as a weakness; part #10 later in this segment addresses this incorrect perception.
Part #6: Privacy
As if the above wasn’t enough, here’s another secret that PascalCoin has: it is a full-blown privacy coin. It uses two separate foundations to achieve comprehensive anonymity: in-protocol mixer for transfer amounts and zn-SNARKs for private balances. The former has been implemented and the latter is on the roadmap. Both the 0-confirmation transaction and the negligible transaction fee would make PascalCoin the most scalable privacy coin of any other cryptocurrencies pending the zk-SNARKs implementation.
Part #7: Smart Contracts
Next, PascalCoin will take smart contracts to the next level with a layer-2 overlay consensus system that pioneers sidechains and other smart contract implementations.
In formal terms, this layer-2 architecture will facilitate the transfer of data between PASAs which in turn allows clean enveloping of layer-2 protocols inside layer-1 much in the same way that HTTP lives inside TCP.
To summarize:
· The layer-2 consensus method is separate from the layer-1 Proof-of-Work. This layer-2 consensus method is independent and flexible. A sidechain – based on a single encompassing PASA – could apply Proof-of-Stake (POS), Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPOS), or Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) as the consensus system of its choice.
· Such a layer-2 smart contract platform can be written in any languages.
· Layer-2 sidechains will also provide very strong anonymity since funds are all pooled and keys are not used to unlock them.
· This layer-2 architecture is ingenious in which the computation is separate from layer-2 consensus, in effect removing any bottleneck.
· Horizontal scaling exists in this paradigm as there is no interdependence between smart contracts and states are not managed by slow sidechains.
· Speed and scalability are fully independent of PascalCoin.
One would be able to run the entire global financial system on PascalCoin’s infinitely scalable smart contract platform and it would still scale infinitely. In fact, this layer-2 architecture would be exponentially faster than Ethereum even after its sharding is implemented.
All this is the main focus of PascalCoin’s upcoming version 5 in 2019. A whitepaper add-on for this major upgrade will be released in early 2019.
Part #8: RandomHash Algorithm
Surely there must be some tradeoffs to PascalCoin’s impressive capabilities, you might be asking yourself. One might bring up the fact that PascalCoin’s layer-1 is based on Proof-of-Work and is thus susceptible to mining centralization. This would be a fallacy as PascalCoin has pioneered the very first true ASIC, GPU, and dual-mining resistant algorithm known as RandomHash that obliterates anything that is not CPU based and gives all the power back to solo miners.
Here is the official description of RandomHash:
“RandomHash is a high-level cryptographic hash algorithm that combines other well-known hash primitives in a highly serial manner. The distinguishing feature is that calculations for a nonce are dependent on partial calculations of other nonces, selected at random. This allows a serial hasher (CPU) to re-use these partial calculations in subsequent mining saving 50% or more of the work-load. Parallel hashers (GPU) cannot benefit from this optimization since the optimal nonce-set cannot be pre-calculated as it is determined on-the-fly. As a result, parallel hashers (GPU) are required to perform the full workload for every nonce. Also, the algorithm results in 10x memory bloat for a parallel implementation. In addition to its serial nature, it is branch-heavy and recursive making in optimal for CPU-only mining.”
One might be understandably skeptical of any Proof-of-Work algorithm that solves ASIC and GPU centralization once for all because there have been countless proposals being thrown around for various algorithms since the dawn of Bitcoin. Is RandomHash truly the ASIC & GPU killer that it claims to be?
Herman Schoenfeld, the inventor behind RandomHash, described his algorithm in the following:
“RandomHash offers endless ASIC-design breaking surface due to its use of recursion, hash algo selection, memory hardness and random number generation.
For example, changing how round hash selection is made and/or random number generator algo and/or checksum algo and/or their sequencing will totally break an ASIC design. Conceptually if you can significantly change the structure of the output assembly whilst keeping the high-level algorithm as invariant as possible, the ASIC design will necessarily require proportional restructuring. This results from the fact that ASIC designs mirror the ASM of the algorithm rather than the algorithm itself.”
Polyminer1 (pseudonym), one of the members of the PascalCoin core team who developed RHMiner (official software for mining RandomHash), claimed as follows:
“The design of RandomHash is, to my experience, a genuine innovation. I’ve been 30 years in the field. I’ve rarely been surprised by anything. RandomHash was one of my rare surprises. It’s elegant, simple, and achieves resistance in all fronts.”
PascalCoin may have been the first party to achieve the race of what could possibly be described as the “God algorithm” for Proof-of-Work cryptocurrencies. Look no further than one of Monero’s core developers since 2015, Howard Chu. In September 2018, Howard declared that he has found a solution, called RandomJS, to permanently keep ASICs off the network without repetitive algorithm changes. This solution actually closely mirrors RandomHash’s algorithm. Discussing about his algorithm, Howard asserted that “RandomJS is coming at the problem from a direction that nobody else is.”
Link to Howard Chu’s article on RandomJS:
https://www.coindesk.com/one-musicians-creative-solution-to-drive-asics-off-monero
Yet when Herman was asked about Howard’s approach, he responded:
“Yes, looks like it may work although using Javascript was a bit much. They should’ve just used an assembly subset and generated random ASM programs. In a way, RandomHash does this with its repeated use of random mem-transforms during expansion phase.”
In the end, PascalCoin may have successfully implemented the most revolutionary Proof-of-Work algorithm, one that eclipses Howard’s burgeoning vision, to date that almost nobody knows about. To learn more about RandomHash, refer to the following resources:
RandomHash whitepaper:
https://www.pascalcoin.org/storage/whitepapers/RandomHash_Whitepaper.pdf
Technical proposal for RandomHash:
https://github.com/PascalCoin/PascalCoin/blob/mastePIP/PIP-0009.md
Someone might claim that PascalCoin still suffers from mining centralization after RandomHash, and this is somewhat misleading as will be explained in part #10.
Part #9: Fair Distribution and Governance
Not only does PascalCoin rest on superior technology, but it also has its roots in the correct philosophy of decentralized distribution and governance. There was no ICO or pre-mine, and the developer fund exists as a percentage of mining rewards as voted by the community. This developer fund is 100% governed by a decentralized autonomous organization – currently facilitated by the PascalCoin Foundation – that will eventually be transformed into an autonomous smart contract platform. Not only is the developer fund voted upon by the community, but PascalCoin’s development roadmap is also voted upon the community via the Protocol Improvement Proposals (PIPs).
This decentralized governance also serves an important benefit as a powerful deterrent to unseemly fork wars that befall many cryptocurrencies.
Part #10: Common Misconceptions of PascalCoin
“The branding is terrible”
PascalCoin is currently working very hard on its image and is preparing for several branding and marketing initiatives in the short term. For example, two of the core developers of the PascalCoin recently interviewed with the Fox Business Network. A YouTube replay of this interview will be heavily promoted.
Some people object to the name PascalCoin. First, it’s worth noting that PascalCoin is the name of the project while Pascal is the name of the underlying currency. Secondly, Google and YouTube received excessive criticisms back then in the beginning with their name choices. Look at where those companies are nowadays – surely a somewhat similar situation faces PascalCoin until the name’s familiarity percolates into the public.
“The wallet GUI is terrible”
As the team is run by a small yet extremely dedicated developers, multiple priorities can be challenging to juggle. The lack of funding through an ICO or a pre-mine also makes it challenging to accelerate development. The top priority of the core developers is to continue developing full-time on the groundbreaking technology that PascalCoin offers. In the meantime, an updated and user-friendly wallet GUI has been worked upon for some time and will be released in due time. Rome wasn’t built in one day.
“One would need to purchase a PASA in the first place”
This is a complicated topic since PASAs need to be commoditized by the SafeBox’s design, meaning that PASAs cannot be obtained at no charge to prevent systematic abuse. This raises two seemingly valid concerns:
· As a chicken and egg problem, how would one purchase a PASA using Pascal in the first place if one cannot obtain Pascal without a PASA?
· How would the price of PASAs stay low and affordable in the face of significant demand?
With regards to the chicken and egg problem, there are many ways – some finished and some unfinished – to obtain your first PASA as explained on the “Get Started” page on the PascalCoin website:
https://www.pascalcoin.org/get_started
More importantly, however, is the fact that there are few methods that can get your first PASA for free. The team will also release another method soon in which you could obtain your first PASA for free via a single SMS message. This would probably become by far the simplest and the easiest way to obtain your first PASA for free. There will be more new ways to easily obtain your first PASA for free down the road.
What about ensuring the PASA market at large remains inexpensive and affordable following your first (and probably free) PASA acquisition? This would be achieved in two ways:
· Decentralized governance of the PASA economics per the explanation in the FAQ section on the bottom of the PascalCoin website (https://www.pascalcoin.org/)
· Unlimited and free pseudo-PASAs based on layer-2 in the next version release.
“PascalCoin is still centralized after the release of RandomHash”
Did the implementation of RandomHash from version 4 live up to its promise?
The official goals of RandomHash were as follow:
(1) Implement a GPU & ASIC resistant hash algorithm
(2) Eliminate dual mining
The two goals above were achieved by every possible measure.
Yet a mining pool, Nanopool, was able to regain its hash majority after a significant but a temporary dip.
The official conclusion is that, from a probabilistic viewpoint, solo miners are more profitable than pool miners. However, pool mining is enticing for solo miners who 1) have limited hardware as it ensures a steady income instead of highly profitable but probabilistic income via solo mining, and 2) who prefer convenient software and/or GUI.
What is the next step, then? While the barrier of entry for solo miners has successfully been put down, additional work needs to be done. The PascalCoin team and the community are earnestly investigating additional steps to improve mining decentralization with respect to pool mining specifically to add on top of RandomHash’s successful elimination of GPU, ASIC, and dual-mining dominance.
It is likely that the PascalCoin community will promote the following two initiatives in the near future:
(1) Establish a community-driven, nonprofit mining pool with attractive incentives.
(2) Optimize RHMiner, PascalCoin’s official solo mining software, for performance upgrades.
A single pool dominance is likely short lived once more options emerge for individual CPU miners who want to avoid solo mining for whatever reason(s).
Let us use Bitcoin as an example. Bitcoin mining is dominated by ASICs and mining pools but no single pool is – at the time of this writing – even close on obtaining the hash majority. With CPU solo mining being a feasible option in conjunction with ASIC and GPU mining eradication with RandomHash, the future hash rate distribution of PascalCoin would be far more promising than Bitcoin’s hash rate distribution.
PascalCoin is the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
If you’ve read this far, let’s cut straight to the point: PascalCoin IS the unicorn cryptocurrency.
It is worth noting that PascalCoin is still a young cryptocurrency as it was launched at the end of 2016. This means that many features are still work in progress such as zn-SNARKs, smart contracts, and pool decentralization to name few. However, it appears that all of the unicorn criteria are within PascalCoin’s reach once PascalCoin’s technical roadmap is mostly completed.
Based on this expository on PascalCoin’s technology, there is every reason to believe that PascalCoin is the unicorn cryptocurrency. PascalCoin also solves two fundamental blockchain problems beyond the unicorn criteria that were previously considered unsolvable: blockchain size and simple address system. The SafeBox pushes PascalCoin to the forefront of cryptocurrency zeitgeist since it is a superior solution compared to UTXO, Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), Block Lattice, Tangle, and any other blockchain innovations.


THE UNICORN

Author: Tyler Swob
submitted by Kosass to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Bitcoin, dogecoin. How I tried to make my fortune in 2014 with the sweat of my computer.

Bitcoin, dogecoin. How I tried to make my fortune in 2014 with the sweat of my computer.

https://preview.redd.it/mv21lvsa3do31.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=51bf5296a06eedc178079cf0b3ab4c3cfc44f271
Make money just by working on your computer: the rise of electronic currencies, in the wake of bitcoin, can be a little dream, especially in times of crisis. We tried the experiment. Wealth at your fingertips? Not for everybody.
Reading time: 6 min.
We have known at least since March 2013, with the soaring Bitcoin (BTC) price during the closing of Cypriot banks: electronic currencies, it has not much virtual. Since the creation of the enigmatic Satoshi Nakamoto serves as a safe haven, a playground for speculators, interests the States and even makes it possible to pay for his trip to the space where his beer, bigger world would dare to pretend that it only serves to buy prohibited substances on SilkRoad - if it ever was.
At the end of November, James Howells was mocked a lot, this Brit, caught in a household frenzy, inadvertently threw a hard disk containing 7,500 bitcoins, the equivalent of 4.8 million euros. A small fortune now lost in the depths of the Docksway dump near Newport. Nevertheless, before causing the consternation of the global Internet, Jamie still had the nose to undermine the BTC at a time when the experience mobilized a handful of hardcore geeks.
Since the rise (sawtooth) bitcoin, each unit currently weighs more than 800 dollars, nearly thirty cryptocurrencies have emerged. Is it possible, this year again, to let this promising, volatile and risky train pass, or to fall into
  1. Choose your electronic motto.
  2. All are based on the same principle: to summarize (very) big features [1], the issuance of money is governed by an algorithm, and the new corners put in circulation reward the resolution, by participants in a network of peer and mathematical problems, including the validation and archiving of transactions, which are public [2]. Mining a cryptocurrency is like putting the computing power of your computer in the service of the network.
  3. Since the program is decreasing [3], the mining becomes more and more difficult with time (and with the increase of the number of participants): to hope to make his pelote via the only computational activity, one must either have to at its disposal a large fleet of machines, to be a miner from the first hour. Exit the bitcoin, long since out of the reach of a personal computer.
  4. I similarly gave up the litecoin and peercoin, already well launched (they date respectively 2011 and 2012), to set my heart on one of the most recent currencies - and certainly the hippest of the moment: the dogecoin.
  5. As its name suggests, the cryptocurrency favorite Shiba Inus from around the world is a tribute to the Doge, one of the most famous memes of 2013, with its captions in Comic Sans, the font most sorry for the web. A geek joke, therefore, except that - the unfathomable mysteries of the Internet - its value jumped 900% in the third week of December, and she suffered a Christmas robbery online.
  6. Admittedly, at the time when these lines are written, the dogecoin caps at 0.00023 dollars [4] - its quite ridiculous (and quite depressing), but even if you bet on the future, so much to go frankly.
  7. 2. The hands in the engine the billboard.
  8. From there, things get tough (a little). Installing an electronic purse on ones computer is not very complicated (the software is available for Windows, MacOS, Android or, for the more adventurous, on a repository to compile under Linux). It is also possible to use an online wallet, but it is more risky (except, perhaps, when one is called James Howells). When opened for the first time, the purse automatically synchronizes with the Dogecoin network (be careful, it can be long), which gives you a payment address (we can generate more later).
  9. The two most common ways to undermine electronic money are to use the computing power of the computers microprocessor (CPU) or, more efficiently, that of the graphics card processor (GPU). In the first case, the program is simple to install; in the second, it is necessary to choose the most adapted to its material [5]. There are, thankfully, a lot of online tutorials. Still, to operate the corner board requires in all cases to trade the comfort of the GUI for aridity, so confusing to the layman, command lines - we have nothing for nothing.
  10. Finally, at work alone, we prefer collaboration. Mining is best done in groups, or rather in pool: it distributes the gains, of course, but also the difficulty. For the dogecoin as for all the crypto-currencies, the pools are numerous. A quick tour of a dedicated section of the Reddit community site can help you make your choice.
  11. 3. Extension of the field of struggle.
  12. And after? After, we can rest, since it is the machine that works. But the truth of a cryptocurrency - even at the exceptionally high LOL and LOL rates of the Shiba Inu - is cruel and brutal: not all computers are equal. Or rather, some are more equal than others. For while you heat your CPU or your graphics card to grapple some unfortunate corners, others will sweep the game thanks to specialized integrated circuits, computing capabilities much higher.
  13. If the game of buying and reselling corners is basically just another stock exchange mechanism, less the intervention of the central banks - what is at stake, and the big political question they ask: are we certain to prefer speculation pure and perfect to monetary policies, however questionable they may be? -, production, it is the law of the strongest (in calculation). There are even lethal weapons at $ 10,000 each, with which your processors are like mosquitoes in front of an A bomb.
  14. And if you think it does not matter because after all, it does not cost you anything, think again: the components, like humans, wear out faster when they work at full speed, and the bill of electricity can quickly grow. The profitability of the case is anything but certain, as evidenced by the results of online calculators. (Needless to say, our laughing dogecoin does not stand up to this kind of simulation.)
  15. Much more boring, from a collective point of view: the carbon footprint, current and above all expected, of electronic currencies worries more and more. Last spring, Bloomberg estimated that the energy consumption of the Bitcoin network was equivalent to that of 31,000 US households. Not sure, according to the site, that their emission is less damaging to the environment than have been some physical currencies.
  16. For exciting to analyze that is the emergence of cryptocurrencies, it is better to ask now about their cost, economic and ecological. To see it as a potential source of income, except for being a very early adopter with a hollow nose, an individual with a lot of computational capital or a clever trader, you have to make a point.
  17. If the recurrent comparison with the famous Ponzi pyramid [6] is discussed (after all, the decentralized currencies do not make promises), remains that, as long as the value does not collapse, the system benefits mainly to the first entrants - except James Howells.
  18. As the Bitcoin.fr site aptly states: all this is just an experiment, invest only the time and money you can afford to lose. LOLs love was not a worse reason than another to experiment, so I finally submitted my laptop to four days and three nights of intense activity, which makes me happy. owner of a good half a thousand dogecoins. Either the equivalent of 0.115 dollar, or 0.08 euro. It is obviously not worth the electricity consumed to generate them, it increases my carbon footprint, but it amuses my entourage. But laughter is, as everyone knows, a safe bet in times of crisis, less volatile than a real bitcoin.
  19. And then, after all, you never know.
  20. Amaelle Guiton.
  21. 1. For explanations more provided (the case is quite complex), refer, for example, to the series of very detailed notes devoted to blogger Turblog.
  22. 2. And as such, searchable by everyone. It is the identity of the users that is not known, unless they reveal it, hence the reputation of anonymity (relative, therefore) cryptocurrencies.
  23. 3. In the case of bitcoin, the maximum of 21 million units should be reached around 2140.
  24. 4. For a day-to-day follow-up, see the CoinMarketCap site which lists the exchange rates of crypto-currencies, based on the dollar value of bitcoin.
  25. 5. We discover then, unfortunately, that some graphics cards do not allow the mining. This is the case for the author of these lines, reduced to working in conditions of extreme computer deprivation.
  26. 6. Comparison which is at the heart of a hilarious note on the ponzicoin, signed by the economic journalist Matthew OBrien, on The Atlantic (to read if you intend seriously to invest in the dogecoin).
submitted by Mejbah411 to u/Mejbah411 [link] [comments]

Welcome to Komodo. A Beginner's Guide.

Overview: the basics of the Komodo ecosystem.
 
1. Privacy: a mighty privacy coin that protects your data and rewards you 5% annually.
 
What is a privacy coin? Privacy coins implement various protocols to create a layer of privacy between blockchain transactions. This can be utilized to prevent blockchain traceability or provide different levels of privacy for data stored on the blockchain.
 
What is Jumblr? A decentralized cryptocurrency shuffler that allows your transactions to become incognito and protects them from being traced through a time or knapsack attack. It adds a privacy layer to your transactions because after your coins are Jumbled, an analysis of the amounts that went in or times that they came out is futile. This function is unique to Komodo and does not require third parties.
 
2. Security: a secure and robust consensus mechanism called delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) that protects your funds and our ecosystem. This unique technology uses a notarization process to create a backup of the entire Komodo blockchain onto the Bitcoin blockchain thereby increasing security and resilience. This happens roughly every ten minutes. The backups are then saved (notarized) onto the Bitcoin blockchain because it has the highest hashrate available. So even if Komodo suffered a devastating attack (which is extremely unlikely), the Komodo blockchain would merely revert to the most recently notarized copy of the chain. If Bitcoin loses superiority in terms of hashrate the dPOW mechanism can be switched to another blockchain on demand. Hence, Komodo is the most flexible platform to build on and one of the most secure.
 
What is hashrate? A proof of work blockchain needs a lot of calculations. Hashrate is the way it is measured. The amount of data hashed in a given time by a machine. It is a unit used to define the amount of calculations made by a machine. When you add all the machines together you have the hashrate for that blockchain (here’s a great chart that illustrates it). It's like a river of transactions and the broader and wider it is, the harder it is to manipulate it.
 
Hashrate historical chart: https://bitinfocharts.com/comparison/hashrate-btc-eth-bch-ltc.html#1y.
 
3. Freedom from middlemen: a decentralized exchange (DEX) called BarterDEX, with a fully working order book, powered by our world-class atomic swap technology. This reduces risk and transaction fees. Komodo’s atomic swaps work between Bitcoin protocol and ERC20 tokens which means we can support over 95% of all the tokens and coins in existence. Our decentralized exchange offers ‘liquidity power-ups’ which mean that you can place more than one buy order with the same funds (i.e. pick your top 5 coins and if any of them drop below 50% of their value you’ll buy it and cancel the other orders at the same time) which means your funds have a greater value! On top of all that, Komodo’s DEX has fast transaction speeds and super low transaction fees (0.15%). You can find live BarterDEX and Komodo Stats here: https://dexstats.info/index.php.
 
What are atomic swaps? Atomic swaps are a method of trading cryptocurrencies peer-to-peer, directly from one blockchain to another, without the need to trust a third-party. Here is a good article to read that will take you about 11 minutes ‘Atomic Swaps & Etomic Swaps, Explained in Plain English’ written by John Westbrook on Medium.
 
Why do YOU want an exchange to be decentralized? A centralized exchange is a third party and requires you to trust them with your funds. If they’re hacked you’re at risk of losing your funds. Centralized exchanges also require you to trade between pillars (i.e. BTC or USDT) which can involve higher transaction fees and a greater number of trades than necessary to swap the token you have for the one you want (i.e. DOGE sell to BTC to buy KMD is two trades when all you really want is DOGE to KMD).
 
4. Independence: decentralized ICO crowdfunding and scalability solutions for blockchain startups.
You can think of a blockchain as a motorway and if you build a project on the same blockchain as other projects you will be impacted by how well the other drives behave, or by the motorway introducing tolls, or you could suffer from congestion (i.e. if you’re familiar with how crypto kitties caused ETH transaction fees to greatly increase and transaction speeds to slow down then you’ll understand multiple projects on one blockchain cause a scalability and independence problem ).
Komodo offers parallel chains which mean a project or decentralized ICO is given its own chain which uses Komodo’s technology. This also solves the scalability issue because using the motorway analogy we can simply open more lanes for a project with a high amount of congestion. This is possible because of the dPOW notarisation. It allows projects to launch completely independent blockchains.
Every independent blockchain created on Komodo Platform is automatically integrated into Komodo’s BarterDEX (DEX) which means they have instant access to liquidity for their token and their community can buy and trade immediately. If you compare this to a centralized exchange where projects are often met with a list of onerous demands and fees to be listed and risk being delisted then you’ll understand how important this is for any project especially smaller teams and decentralized apps (dAPPS).
 
5. Universal Wallet: the Agama Wallet is a universal secure, multi-coin wallet to store funds on and claim the 5% reward for your $KMD tokens. There is also a paper wallet available if you would prefer a cold storage option for those who want to maximize their security.
 

Read the Whitepaper

Join the Community

 

FAQs for BarterDEX

 

FAQs for Wallets

Where to buy $KMD

Mining Komodo

Thank you for reading this far. If you have any suggestions for how we can improve this guide or any questions please leave your commments below.
submitted by benohanlon to komodoplatform [link] [comments]

Is Genesis Mining worth it? I created a Genesis Mining profitability calculator in Google sheets to find out.

TL;DR: I attempt to overcome the pitfalls of forecasting genesis mining contract profitability for Ethereum, Monero, and Zcash.
The original Medium post can be found here: https://medium.com/@spreadstreet/is-genesis-mining-worth-it-a-genesis-mining-profitability-calculator-youll-actually-use-a06d916bf7bc
BitPay is on pace to process over $1B annually in bitcoin payment acceptance and payouts, and has already grown their payments dollar volume 328% year-over-year, according to a recent blog post on the BitPay website.
The very nature of cryptocurrencies requires transactions to be verified by miners. What does this mean?
  1. Cryptocurrency transactions are verified by a network of nodes, then recorded in a publicly distributed ledger known as a “blockchain”, which authenticates the coins as monetary units of measurement – or money.
  2. Cryptocurrency mining refers to coins created as a reward in which the users of the network verify and record transactions on this very blockchain. Users who are able to successfully verify the transactions receive fees and rewards in the form of brand new coins.
And Genesis Mining stands as the largest cryptocurrency cloud mining company in the world.
A user can rent "hashing power" in the form of a two-year contract from Genesis for a one-time, upfront fee.
In turn, they receive daily payouts of whatever specific cryptocurrency they purchased the contract for.

THE PROBLEM

While Genesis Mining has done a great job breaking down a complex problem into an easy-to-understand business model, users consistently have one big question:
"How profitable is {x} contract?" - Everybody, ever
While the user is able to see the upfront cost, they are unable to get an idea of how many coins they will receive by the end of the contract.

WHY THE PROBLEM EXISTS

The problem exists, because of two major uncertainties surrounding cryptocurrencies:
  1. Where the price of the currency will fluctuate over time
  2. Where the network hashrate (aka, the mining power of the entire network) will fluctuate over time
Both of these inputs are extremely volatile, and have a huge degree of uncertainty in the near and distant future.
What I will attempt to do in this exercise, is build a profitability calculator for Ethereum, Monero, and Zcash. Each of these cryptocurrencies is currently available on the website as of 11/7/2017.
Each cryptocurrency has three contracts, and I will formulate 4 different scenarios to try and capture a profitability "range".
Note: Do not take any of the words in this post as financial advice or recommendations. These are merely simulations that have their own issues and pitfalls, and are not to be used as the end-all, be-all decision.

THE ASSUMPTIONS

Due to the difficulty in forecasting both price and nethash, I was forced into a few assumptions:
  1. The forecasted price method is a Monte Carlo simulation using a geometric Brownian Motion ran 1,000 times. I covered the full methodology in a prior blog post
  2. The base network hashrate follows along very closely with the movements in price. This assumption I am the least confident about, as network hash has been shown to deviate at certain times
  3. I attempt to cover the shortfall in network hash rate with two different scenarios (shown below).
  4. I assume we hold all coins until the end of the contract, and assign a value to the portfolio based on $USD
  5. I do not run any scenarios of converting a currency into another currency
  6. I do not account for any significant changes to the underlying algorithm, such as the "Casper" Ethereum update (see 'THE DIFFICULTY BOMB' below)
Obviously any slight change could drastically alter these assumptions, but let's take a look at the different scenarios.

THE SCENARIOS

Description of Scenarios
Instead of calculating just a base scenario (which every other calculator on the web does) I wanted to come up with different scenarios to get an idea of what could be.
  1. Base - Assume no change in price or network hashrate for the duration of the contract
  2. Median - Run a full 1,000 trial simulation of prices and network hash rate, and use the median values for each
  3. Conservative - The same as Median, but instead use a price forecast that is 1 standard deviation below the median price
  4. Aggressive - The same as Median, but instead use a price forecast that is 1 standard deviation above the median price

APIs USED

  1. Spreadstreet Google Sheets Add-in
  2. Bitfinex API - To pull in historical data for each currency
  3. WhatToMine API - For nethash statistics
  4. CoinMarketCap - Updated prices

ETHEREUM

The only way to utilize Ethereum is with the product from mining.
But this shortchanges the additional value of mining Ether. It is also absolutely required for securing the Ethereum network as it creates, verifies, publishes, and propagates blocks in the blockchain.
The overall term "Ethereum Mining" is the process of mining Ether. Ether is an absolute essential, as it serves as fuel for the smooth running of the Ethereum platform.
Ether is used as an incentive to motivate developers to create top notch applications.

THE DIFFICULTY BOMB

Sometime in the future (we can't be certain when), ethereum will likely switch from its proof-of-work consensus algorithm to Casper, a proof-of-stake system its developers are now in the throes of completing.
From Blockonomi:
As opposed to the PoW consensus protocol, the PoS protocol achieves consensus through stakers—sometimes referred to as minters, too—who “stake” their coins by locking them down in specialized wallets.
With these stakers at work, mining will become redundant, meaning the Ethereum network post-Casper will rely on stakers and staking pools instead of miners for its operability.
Genesis Mining has a prelim plan in place for this scenario:
The Ethererum Mining plans will run for a maximum of 24 months, however, should Ethereum (“ETH”) switch to proof-of-stake before the end of the term, we will use the leased hardware on a best-effort basis to mine the most profitable coin with that hardware for you.
Very simply put, this changes the economics of contract profitability significantly. We are going to ignore that update for now, but it may make sense to stay away from the contracts in the short-term.

THE CONTRACTS

Ethereum Mining Contracts Comparison

ONE-YEAR PRICE FORECAST

Ethereum One Year Price Simulation
Here we can see one of 1,000 price simulations run to inform our forecast for the Median, Conservative, and Aggressive scenarios.
*Why is the price so high? This is what happens when you have a volatile currency in a simulation that does not have changes in said volatility. When a currency can move 20% in one day, it is not uncommon to see price movements like this. I mean, shit, Ethereum grew 25x in one year.

RETURN ON INVESTMENT

Ethereum Profit and ROI Comparison

VERDICT

Base performance ranges from 30% to 39% ROI, and is higher than the Median scenario by ~10%.
The conservative scenario shows a loss of between 59-62%, and the aggressive scenario shows a gain between 318% and 347%.
Difficulty bomb in the near-future presents tremendous uncertainty.

MONERO

From Cryptocompare:
Monero (XMR) is a Cryptonote algorithm based cryptocurrency, it relies on Ring Signatures in order to provide a certain degree of privacy when making a transaction. Monero is a Proof of Work cryptocurrency that can be mined with computational power from a CPU or GPU. There are currently no ASICs for Monero, which means that anyone with a computer can mine it.

THE CONTRACTS

Monero Mining Contracts Comparison

ONE-YEAR PRICE FORECAST

MoneroOne Year Price Simulation
We run the same Monte Carlo simulation to inform our forecast for the Median, Conservative, and Aggressive scenarios.
Why is the price so high? See Ethereum up above.
How is it possible for the "Conservative" scenario to be higher than the base price? Good question, and i'm glad you brought it up. The Monero currency has been not only really volatile, but drifting upwards at a pretty high rate.
The results are also being skewed by a recent uptick on November 6th where the price jumped by ~18%.
This may represent an opportunity for contract investment, but more analysis is needed.

RETURN ON INVESTMENT

Monero Profit and ROI Comparison

VERDICT

Base performance ranges from 87% to 95% ROI, with performance in the Median scenario lower by 5-6%.
The conservative scenario shows a loss of between 63-64%, and the aggressive scenario shows a gain between 795% and 832%.
To reiterate, the aggressive scenario is very much influenced by the recent uptick in volatility, so be weary of those high numbers.

ZCASH

ZCash uses Equihash as an hashing algorithm, which is an asymmetric memory-hard PoW algorithm based on the generalized birthday problem (I don't know what the hell this means, but it sounds fancy).
It relies on high RAM requirements to bottleneck the generation of proofs and making ASIC development unfeasible, much like Ethereum.

THE CONTRACTS

Zcash Mining Contracts Comparison

ONE-YEAR PRICE FORECAST

Zcash One Year Price Simulation
Here we can see one of 1,000 price simulations run to inform our forecast for the Median, Conservative, and Aggressive scenarios.
*Why is the price so high? See: Ethereum up above.

RETURN ON INVESTMENT

Zcash Profit and ROI Comparison

VERDICT

Base performance ranges from 51% to 65% ROI, and surprisingly lags the Median scenario by 4-6%.
The conservative scenario shows a loss of between 56-60%, and the aggressive scenario shows a gain between 490% and 540%.

CONCLUSION

The initial upfront costs and potential profitability are hidden when investing in hashing power contracts like Genesis Mining.
However with some robust analysis, we can get a better idea of how to assess the potential profitability of a two-year deal.
As we continue to evolve our thinking, better methods and analysis will eventually surface. Hopefully this industry can become a great avenue for side income.
If you want your own copy of the analysis and calculations, you can find it here:
Genesis Mining Profit Calculator
Cheers, and happy hunting!

RELATED POSTS

How to Create an Ethereum Mining Calculator from Start to Finish
10 Statistical Price Predictions for 10 Cryptocurrencies
Bitcoin Madness: How to Simulate Bitcoin Prices in Google Sheets

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

John Young is the founder of Spreadstreet.io, former Financial Analyst for a big-ass company, and runner-up in the 6th grade spelling bee. He would have invested in Google if he knew about it...and had any money.
He is the author of the Spreadstreet blog, which has over 3 readers (not a typo). He hopes to hit 10, but honestly writing is a lot of work.
submitted by 1kexperimentdotcom to EtherMining [link] [comments]

What is dev team going do about Dogecoin's dangerously low hashrate?

First of all, let me apologize in advance if anything I say offends people or if I am not very nice. I am stating my opinions and don't like to sugar coat things. So it might be a bit jarring when compared to typical shibes you see around here. :)
The last time I talked to the Dogecoin dev team, they were still trying to figure out what they wanted to do. And Jackson said that he would wait for 2 more halvings before considering merged mining. Well it's been 2 halvings, and the Dogecoin hashrate has behaved pretty much as I expected: LTC/DOGE hashrate comparison
When I did my merged mining AMA, the dogecoin hashrate was about 1/2 of litecoin's hashrate. Today, the hashrate is 1/15 of litecoin's. Pretty much all the ASIC hashrate went to Litecoin, which I warned would happen. The Dogecoin's network security is in danger of being attacked. The top 3 Litecoin pools can easily pull off a 51% attack on the Dogecoin network. In a few weeks, the top 6 Litecoin pools can easily do it.
A Scrypt ASIC farm can decide that it wants to have some fun. The Dogecoin network hashrate is about 45 ghash/s. So as an example, a 50 ghash/s farm can easily 51% it. Here's the earning ability of 50 ghash/s: litecoin mining calculator. It makes about $20500 per day. Let's say it takes about 30 minutes to pull off this attack... that's 30 Dogecoin confirmations. The attacker loses about $430 if he stops mining Litecoin for an hour. They could try to attack one of the top Dogecoin exchanges and try to steal 0.7 bitcoins to make it worth their time. Or they can double spend a lifetime subscription to Hustler.com, which is worth about $500. Or maybe they just don't like Dogecoin. And it only costs them $430! Dogecoin's network security is worth only $430.
So what can you do? Honestly, I'm not sure merged mining is a viable option anymore, as it is becoming less and less viable with each passing day. Merged mining was the best option in April, when I first proposed it. At that time, if merged mining was implemented, almost every single Litecoin and Dogecoin pool will switch to do merged mining right away, because adding merged mining of Dogecoin would increase their mining output by 50%! Today, adding merged mining will only increase earnings by 6%. It's hard to say how many pools will switch. Some might think it's not worth their time. So it would take a big PR push to make this work.
You're now left with a hard choice:
I think the dev team needs to do something soon.
submitted by coblee to dogecoin [link] [comments]

howmanyconfs.com - How does the security of different Proof-of-Work blockchains compare to Bitcoin?

https://howmanyconfs.com
Original post in Bitcoin here: https://np.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/biokgy/howmanyconfscom_how_does_the_security_of/

https://github.com/lukechilds/howmanyconfs.com/raw/mastescreenshot.png

How are these values calculated?

It's easy to compare blockchain hashrates when the Proof-of-Work algorithm is the same. For example if Bitcoin has a hashrate of SHA-256 @ 40 PH/s and Bitcoin Cash has a hashrate of SHA-256 @ 2 PH/s, it's easy to see that for a given period of time the Bitcoin blockchain will have 20x (40/2) the amount of work securing it than the Bitcoin Cash blockchain. Or to say that differently, you need to wait for 20x more Bitcoin Cash confirmations before an equivalent amount of work has been done compared to the Bitcoin blockchain. So 6 Bitcoin confirmations would be roughly equivalent to 120 Bitcoin Cash confirmations in the amount of work done.
However if the Proof-of-Work algorithms are different, how can we compare the hashrate? If we're comparing Bitcoin (SHA-256 @ 40 PH/s) against Litecoin (Scrypt @ 300 TH/s), the hashes aren't equal, one round of SHA-256 is not equivalent to one round of Scrypt.
What we really want to know is how much energy is being consumed to provide the current hash rate. Literal energy, as in joules or kilowatt hours. It would be great if we had a universal metric across blockchains like kWh/s to measure immutability.
However that's fairly hard to calculate, we need to know the average power consumption of the average device used to mine. For GPU/CPU mined Proof-of-Work algorithms this varies greatly. For ASIC mined Proof-of-Work algorithms it varies less, however it's likely that ASIC manufacturers are mining with next generation hardware long before the public is made aware of them, which we can't account for.
There's no automated way to get this data and no reliable data source to scrape it from. We'd need to manually research all mining hardware and collate the data ourself. And as soon as newer mining hardware comes out our results will be outdated.
Is there a simpler way to get an estimated amount of work per blockchain in a single metric we can use for comparisons?
Yeah, there is, we can use NiceHash prices to estimate the cost in $ to secure a blockchain for a given timeframe. This is directly comparable across blockchains and should be directly proportionate to kWh/s, because after all, the energy needs to be paid for in $.
How can we estimate this?
Now we have an estimated total Proof-of-Work metric measured in dollars per second ($/s).
The $/s metric may not be that accurate. Miners will mark up the cost when reselling on NiceHash and we're making the assumption that NiceHash supply is infinite. You can't actually rent 100% of Bitcoin's hashpower from NiceHash, there isn't enough supply.
However that's not really an issue for this metric, we aren't trying to calculate the theoretical cost to rent an additional 100% of the hashrate, we're trying to get a figure that allows us to compare the cost of the current total hashrate accross blockchains. Even if the exact $ value we end up with is not that accurate, it should still be proportionate to kWh/s. This means it's still an accurate metric to compare the difference in work done over a given amount of time between blockchains.
So how do we compare these values between blockchains?
Once we've done the above calculations and got a $/s cost for each blockchain, we just need to factor in the average block time and calculate the total $ cost for a given number of confirmations. Then see how much time is required on the other blockchain at it's $/s value to equal the total cost.
So to calculate how many Litecoin confirmations are equivalent to 6 Bitcoin confirmations we would do:
Therefore we can say that 240 Litecoin confirmations are roughly equal to 6 Bitcoin confirmations in total amount of work done.

Notes

$/s doesn't mean what it sounds like it means.

The $/s values should not be taken as literal costs.
For example:
This is does not mean you could do a 51% attack on Bitcoin and roll back 6 blocks for a cost of $360,000. An attack like that would be much more expensive.
The $/s value is a metric to compare the amount of work at the current hashrate between blockchains. It is not the same as the cost to add hashrate to the network.
When adding hashrate to a network the cost will not scale linearly with hashrate. It will jump suddenly at certain intervals.
For example, once you've used up the available hashrate on NiceHash you need to add the costs of purchasing ASICs, then once you've bought all the ASICs in the world, you'd need to add the costs of fabricating your own chips to keep increasing hashrate.

These metrics are measuring "work done", not security.

More "work done" doesn't necessarily mean "more security".
For example take the following two blockchains:
Bitcoin Cash has a higher $/s value than Zcash so we can deduce it has more "work done" over a given timeframe than Zcash. More kWh/s are required to secure it's blockchain. However does that really mean it's safer?
Zcash is the dominant blockchain for it's Proof-of-Work algorithm (Equihash). Whereas Bitcoin Cash isn't, it uses the same algorithm as Bitcoin. In fact just 5% of Bitcoin's hashrate is equivalent to all of Bitcoin Cash's hashrate.
This means the cost of a 51% attack against Bitcoin Cash could actually be much lower than a 51% attack against Zcash, even though you need to aquire more kWh/s of work, the cost to aquire those kWh/s will likely be lower.
To attack Bitcoin Cash you don't need to acquire any hardware, you just need to convince 5% of the Bitcoin hashrate to lend their SHA-256 hashpower to you.
To attack Zcash, you would likely need to fabricate your own Equihash ASICs, as almost all the Equihash mining hardware in the world is already securing Zcash.

Accurately calculating security is much more complicated.

These metrics give a good estimated value to compare the hashrate accross different Proof-of-Work blockchains.
However to calculate if a payment can be considered "finalised" involves many more variables.
You should factor in:
If the cryptocurrency doesn't dominate the Proof-of-Work it can be attacked more cheaply.
If the market cap or trading volume is really low, an attacker may crash the price of the currency before they can successfully double spend it and make a profit. Although that's more relevant in the context of exchanges rather than individuals accepting payments.
If the value of the transaction is low enough, it may cost more to double spend than an attacker would profit from the double spend.
Ultimately, once the cost of a double spend becomes higher than an attacker can expect to profit from the double spend, that is when a payment can probably be considered "finalised".
submitted by dyslexiccoder to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

New people please read this. [upvote for visibility please]

I am seeing too many new people come and and getting confused. Litecoin wiki isn't the greatest when it comes to summing up things so I will try to do things as best as I can. I will attempt to explain from what I have learned and answer some questions. Hopefully people smarter than me will also chime in. I will keep this post updated as much as I can.
Preface
Litecoin is a type to electronic currency. It is just like Bitcoin but it there are differences. Difference explained here.
If you are starting to mine now chances are that you have missed the Bitcoin mining train. If you really want your time and processing power to not go to waste you should mine LTC because the access to BTC from there is much easier.
Mining. What is it?
Let's get this straight. When making any financial commitment to this be prepared to do it with "throw away" money. Mining is all about the hashrate and is measured in KH/s (KiloHash/sec). Unlike the powerful ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) that are used to mine bitcoins using hashrates in the GH/s and even TH/s, litecoin mining has only been able to achieve at the very best MH/s. I think the highest I've seen is 130 MH/s so far. Which leads us to our next section.
Mining Hardware
While CPU mining is still a thing it is not as powerful as GPU mining. Your laptop might be able to get 1 a month. However, I encourage you to consult this list first. List of hardware comparison You will find the highest of processors can maybe pull 100 KH/s and if we put this into a litecoin mining calculator it doesn't give us much.
Another reason why you don't want to mine with your CPU is pretty simple. You are going to destroy it.
So this leaves us with GPUs. Over the past few months (and years) the HD 7950 has been the favourite because it drains less power and has a pretty good hashrate. But recently the introduction of the R9 290 (not the x) has changed the game a bit. People are getting 850 KH/s - 900 KH/s with that card. It's crazy.
Should I mine?
Honestly given the current difficulty you can make a solid rig for about $1100 with a hashrate of 1700 KH/s which would give you your investment back in about a month and a half. I am sure people out there can create something for much cheaper. Here is a good example of a setup as suggested by dystopiats
PCPartPicker part list / Price breakdown by merchant / Benchmarks
Type Item Price
CPU AMD Sempron 145 2.8GHz Single-Core Processor $36.01 @ Amazon
Motherboard ASRock 970 EXTREME4 ATX AM3+ Motherboard $99.48 @ OutletPC
Memory Crucial Ballistix Tactical Tracer 4GB (1 x 4GB) DDR3-1866 Memory $59.99 @ Newegg
Video Card Sapphire Radeon HD 7950 3GB Video Card (3-Way CrossFire) $245.38 @ Newegg
Video Card Sapphire Radeon HD 7950 3GB Video Card (3-Way CrossFire) $245.38 @ Newegg
Video Card Sapphire Radeon HD 7950 3GB Video Card (3-Way CrossFire) $245.38 @ Newegg
Power Supply SeaSonic Platinum 860W 80+ Platinum Certified Fully-Modular ATX Power Supply $146.98 @ SuperBiiz
Total
Prices include shipping, taxes, and discounts when available. $1078.60
Generated by PCPartPicker 2013-11-29 00:52 EST-0500
Estimated Hashrate (with GPU overclocking) : 1900 KH/s
Hardware Fundamentals
CPU - Do you need a powerful CPU? No but make sure it is a decent one. AMD CPUs are cheap to buy right now with tons of power. Feel free to use a Sempron or Celeron depending on what Motherboard you go with.
RAM - Try to get at least 4 GB so as to not run into any trouble. Memory is cheap these days. I am saying 4 GB only because of Windoze. If you are plan to run this on Linux you can even get away with less memory.
HDD Any good ol 7200 RPM hard drive will do. Make sure it is appropriate. No point in buying a 1TB hard drive. Since, this is a newbie's guide I assumed most won't know how to run linux, but incase you do you can get a USB flash drive and run linux from it thus removing the need for hard drive all toghether. (thanks dystopiats)
GPU - Consult the list of hardware of hardware I posted above. Make sure you consider the KH/s/W ratio. To me the 290 is the best option but you can skimp down to 7950 if you like.
PSU - THIS IS BLOODY IMPORTANT. Most modern GPUs are power hungry so please make sure you are well within the limits of your power consumption.
MOTHERBOARD - Ok, so a pretty popular board right now is Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD3 and the ASRock 970 Extreme4. Some people are even going for Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD5 and even the mighty Gigabyte GA-990FXA-UD7 because it has more PCI-E slots. 6 to be exact. However you may not need that much. With risers you can get more shoved into less.
PCI-E RISERS - These are called risers. They come in x16 to x16 and x1 to x16 connections. Here is the general rule of thumb. This is very important. Always get a POWERED riser otherwise you will burn a hole in your MoBo. A powered rise as a molex connector so that additional power from PSU can be supplied.
When it comes to hardware I've provided the most basic knowledge you need. Also, take a look at cryptobader's website. This is very helpful. Please visit the mining section of Litecoin Forums and the litecoinmining subreddit for more indepth info.
Mining Software
Now that you have assembled your hardware now you need to get into a pool. But before you do that you need a mining software. There are many different ones but the one that is most popular is cgminer. Download it and make sure you read the README. It is a very robust piece of software. Please read this if you want to know more. (thanks BalzOnYer4Head)
Mining Pools
Now that your hardware and software is ready. I know nothing about solo mining other than the fact that you have to be very lucky and respectable amount of hashing power to decrypt a block. So it is better to join pools. I have been pool hopping for a bit and really liked give-me-coin previously known to the community as give-me-ltc. They have a nice mobile app and 0% pool fees. This is really a personal preference. Take a look at this list and try some yourself.
How do I connect to a pool?
Most pools will give you a tutorial on how to but the basics are as follows:
  • Signup for a pool
  • Create a worker for your account. Usually one worker per rig (Yes people have multiple rigs) is generally a good idea.
  • Create a .run file. Open up notepad and type cgminer.exe -o (address_to_the_miningpool:port_number) -u (yourusername.workername) -p (your_worker_password_if_you_made_one). Then File>Save As>runcgminer.run (Make sure the drop down is set to "All Files" and .txt document.) and save in the same folder as cgminer. That's it.
  • Double click on runcgminer.run (or whatever you named it) and have fun mining.
Mining Profitability
This game is not easy. If it was, practically everyone would be doing it. This is strictly a numbers game and there are calculations available that can help you determine your risk on your investments. 4 variables you need to consider when you are starting to mine:
Hardware cost: The cost of your physical hardware to run this whole operation.
Power: Measured in $/KwH is also known as the operating cost.
Difficulty rate: To put it in layman's terms the increase in difficulty is inversely proportional to amount of coin you can mine. The harder the difficulty the harder it is to mine coin. Right now difficulty is rising at about 18% per 3 days. This can and will change since all you miners are soon going to jump on the band wagon.
Your sanity: I am not going to tell you to keep calm and chive on because quiet frankly that is stupid. What I will tell you not to get too carried away. You will pull you hair out. Seriously.
Next thing you will need is a simple tool. A mining profitability calculator. I have two favourite ones.
coinwarz
I like this one cause it is simple. The fields are self explanatory. Try it.
bitcoinwisdom
I like this one because it is a more real life scenario calculator and more complicated one (not really). It also takes increasing difficulty into account.
Please note: This is the absolute basic info you need. If you have more questions feel free to ask and or google it!
More Below.
submitted by craeyon to litecoin [link] [comments]

Comparison of GPU VS ASIC Mining Mining calculator monero - That is Mining calculator Best GPU To Use For Mining 2019/2020 Bitcoin Mining Calculator. Mining Profitability Calculator

Although an ASIC can be built to provide optimal hashrates on an algorithm, the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is much more powerful than the CPU, and more flexible than an ASIC in their application. The GPU is the chip that enables graphics cards (often called GPUs for brevity in mining circles) to perform millions of repetitive calculations GPU Manufacter Model Core Clock Mem Clock Operating system Driver Version Mining Software Power Consumption Currency Algorythm Speed Revenue / Day Revenue / Month Hashrate / Watt Revenue / Month (electricity deducted) Proof; RIGS: NVIDIA: 13x ASUS GTX 1080 Ti--Windows 10: Claymore v10: 1158: Ethash: 464000000: $11.38: $341.38: 0.40: $ 237.99 BT 24: 159.70 s BR: 9.70026 LB: 551,221 NH: 1.16 Mh/s: inf inf : 1800.00 kh/s 190 Watt: 0.00000010 BTC(Mercatox) 0.00%: N/A N/A: 3,946.56956104 0.00039466: $3.62$3.40 GPU Mining Profitability Comparison. Specs Algorithm Price. Revenue. Payback. AMD Radeon RX 580 Available | 3 stores 26 MH/s. 150 W +14 CryptoNightV7 PHI1612 NeoScrypt Equihash Xevan TimeTravel10 Lyra2REv2 Groestl NIST5 Blake (14r) CryptoNight LBRY Pascal X11Gost. Ethash. From: $169.00 An easy to use crypto-currency finance utility that shows a GPU miner the most profitable coin to mine with their specific hardware. The utility does this by calculating the instantanious profitabilities for each coin and ranking them based on the result. The tool also features a historical profitability graph that can be used to determine which coins have been the most profitable in the past

[index] [23362] [15649] [4306] [29223] [913] [24884] [30471] [20441] [831] [9783]

Comparison of GPU VS ASIC Mining

mining calculator monero The Computationally-Difficult Problem Mining a block is difficult because the SHA-256 hash of a block's header must be lower than or equal to the target in order for the ... 6 GPU Ethereum Mining Rig Hardware - 2018 Build Guide - Duration: ... Bitcoin Mining Roi Calculator 2017 with Genesis Mining! - Duration: 5:54. Jason Reviews TECH 2,909 views. This is a great website that will tell you how profitable you are when it comes to mining. Link: www.whattomine.com Here's a blog post I wrote about GPU mining profitability: https://www.publish0x ... Bitcoin Mining - How To Cash In With Cloud Mining In 2020 In this video, I divulge how I've been earning large returns with bitcoin smart cloud mining. I utilize the platform IQ Mining and buy ... In this episode of Crypto Miner Tips, I go over the best GPUs to use for mining cryptocurrency currently. Despite mining profits being subpar now is the best time to start looking at getting deals ...

Flag Counter