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The Next Processor Change is Within ARMs Reach

As you may have seen, I sent the following Tweet: “The Apple ARM MacBook future is coming, maybe sooner than people expect” https://twitter.com/choco_bit/status/1266200305009676289?s=20
Today, I would like to further elaborate on that.
tl;dr Apple will be moving to Arm based macs in what I believe are 4 stages, starting around 2015 and ending around 2023-2025: Release of T1 chip Macbooks, release of T2 chip Macbooks, Release of at least one lower end model Arm Macbook, and transitioning full lineup to Arm. Reasons for each are below.
Apple is very likely going to switch to switch their CPU platform to their in-house silicon designs with an ARM architecture. This understanding is a fairly common amongst various Apple insiders. Here is my personal take on how this switch will happen and be presented to the consumer.
The first question would likely be “Why would Apple do this again?”. Throughout their history, Apple has already made two other storied CPU architecture switches - first from the Motorola 68k to PowerPC in the early 90s, then from PowerPC to Intel in the mid 2000s. Why make yet another? Here are the leading reasons:
A common refrain heard on the Internet is the suggestion that Apple should switch to using CPUs made by AMD, and while this has been considered internally, it will most likely not be chosen as the path forward, even for their megalithic giants like the Mac Pro. Even though AMD would mitigate Intel’s current set of problems, it does nothing to help the issue of the x86_64 architecture’s problems and inefficiencies, on top of jumping to a platform that doesn’t have a decade of proven support behind it. Why spend a lot of effort re-designing and re- optimizing for AMD’s platform when you can just put that effort into your own, and continue the vertical integration Apple is well-known for?
I believe that the internal development for the ARM transition started around 2015/2016 and is considered to be happening in 4 distinct stages. These are not all information from Apple insiders; some of these these are my own interpretation based off of information gathered from supply-chain sources, examination of MacBook schematics, and other indicators from Apple.

Stage1 (from 2014/2015 to 2017):

The rollout of computers with Apple’s T1 chip as a coprocessor. This chip is very similar to Apple’s T8002 chip design, which was used for the Apple Watch Series 1 and Series 2. The T1 is primarily present on the first TouchID enabled Macs, 2016 and 2017 model year MacBook Pros.
Considering the amount of time required to design and validate a processor, this stage most likely started around 2014 or 2015, with early experimentation to see whether an entirely new chip design would be required, or if would be sufficient to repurpose something in the existing lineup. As we can see, the general purpose ARM processors aren’t a one- trick pony.
To get a sense of the decision making at the time, let’s look back a bit. The year is 2016, and we're witnessing the beginning of stagnation of Intel processor lineup. There is not a lot to look forward to other than another “+” being added to the 14nm fabrication process. The MacBook Pro has used the same design for many years now, and its age is starting to show. Moving to AMD is still very questionable, as they’ve historically not been able to match Intel’s performance or functionality, especially at the high end, and since the “Ryzen” lineup is still unreleased, there is absolutely no benchmarks or other data to show they are worth consideration, and AMD’s most recent line of “Bulldozer” processors were very poorly received. Now is probably as good a time as any to begin experimenting with the in-house ARM designs, but it’s not time to dive into the deep end yet, our chips are not nearly mature enough to compete, and it’s not yet certain how long Intel will be stuck in the mud. As well, it is widely understood that Apple and Intel have an exclusivity contract in exchange for advantageous pricing. Any transition would take considerable time and effort, and since there are no current viable alternative to Intel, the in-house chips will need to advance further, and breaching a contract with Intel is too great a risk. So it makes sense to start with small deployments, to extend the timeline, stretch out to the end of the contract, and eventually release a real banger of a Mac.
Thus, the 2016 Touch Bar MacBooks were born, alongside the T1 chip mentioned earlier. There are good reasons for abandoning the piece of hardware previously used for a similar purpose, the SMC or System Management Controller. I suspect that the biggest reason was to allow early analysis of the challenges that would be faced migrating Mac built- in peripherals and IO to an ARM-based controller, as well as exploring the manufacturing, power, and performance results of using the chips across a broad deployment, and analyzing any early failure data, then using this to patch any issues, enhance processes, and inform future designs looking towards the 2nd stage.
The former SMC duties now moved to T1 includes things like
The T1 chip also communicates with a number of other controllers to manage a MacBook’s behavior. Even though it’s not a very powerful CPU by modern standards, it’s already responsible for a large chunk of the machine’s operation. Moving control of these peripherals to the T1 chip also brought about the creation of the fabled BridgeOS software, a shrunken-down watchOS-based system that operates fully independently of macOS and the primary Intel processor.
BridgeOS is the first step for Apple’s engineering teams to begin migrating underlying systems and services to integrate with the ARM processor via BridgeOS, and it allowed internal teams to more easily and safely develop and issue firmware updates. Since BridgeOS is based on a standard and now well-known system, it means that they can leverage existing engineering expertise to flesh out the T1’s development, rather than relying on the more arcane and specialized SMC system, which operates completely differently and requires highly specific knowledge to work with. It also allows reuse of the same fabrication pipeline used for Apple Watch processors, and eliminated the need to have yet another IC design for the SMC, coming from a separate source, to save a bit on cost.
Also during this time, on the software side, “Project Marzipan”, today Catalyst, came into existence. We'll get to this shortly.
For the most part, this Stage 1 went without any major issues. There were a few firmware problems at first during the product launch, but they were quickly solved with software updates. Now that engineering teams have had experience building for, manufacturing, and shipping the T1 systems, Stage 2 would begin.

Stage2 (2018-Present):

Stage 2 encompasses the rollout of Macs with the T2 coprocessor, replacing the T1. This includes a much wider lineup, including MacBook Pro with Touch Bar, starting with 2018 models, MacBook Air starting with 2018 models, the iMac Pro, the 2019 Mac Pro, as well as Mac Mini starting in 2018.
With this iteration, the more powerful T8012 processor design was used, which is a further revision of the T8010 design that powers the A10 series processors used in the iPhone 7. This change provided a significant increase in computational ability and brought about the integration of even more devices into T2. In addition to the T1’s existing responsibilities, T2 now controls:
Those last 2 points are crucial for Stage 2. Under this new paradigm, the vast majority of the Mac is now under the control of an in-house ARM processor. Stage 2 also brings iPhone-grade hardware security to the Mac. These T2 models also incorporated a supported DFU (Device Firmware Update, more commonly “recovery mode”), which acts similarly to the iPhone DFU mode and allows restoration of the BridgeOS firmware in the event of corruption (most commonly due to user-triggered power interruption during flashing).
Putting more responsibility onto the T2 again allows for Apple’s engineering teams to do more early failure analysis on hardware and software, monitor stability of these machines, experiment further with large-scale production and deployment of this ARM platform, as well as continue to enhance the silicon for Stage 3.
A few new user-visible features were added as well in this stage, such as support for the passive “Hey Siri” trigger, and offloading image and video transcoding to the T2 chip, which frees up the main Intel processor for other applications. BridgeOS was bumped to 2.0 to support all of these changes and the new chip.
On the macOS software side, what was internally known as Project Marzipan was first demonstrated to the public. Though it was originally discovered around 2017, and most likely began development and testing within later parts of Stage 1, its effects could be seen in 2018 with the release of iPhone apps, now running on the Mac using the iOS SDKs: Voice Recorder, Apple News, Home, Stocks, and more, with an official announcement and public release at WWDC in 2019. Catalyst would come to be the name of Marzipan used publicly. This SDK release allows app developers to easily port iOS apps to run on macOS, with minimal or no code changes, and without needing to develop separate versions for each. The end goal is to allow developers to submit a single version of an app, and allow it to work seamlessly on all Apple platforms, from Watch to Mac. At present, iOS and iPadOS apps are compiled for the full gamut of ARM instruction sets used on those devices, while macOS apps are compiled for x86_64. The logical next step is to cross this bridge, and unify the instruction sets.
With this T2 release, the new products using it have not been quite as well received as with the T1. Many users have noticed how this change contributes further towards machines with limited to no repair options outside of Apple’s repair organization, as well as some general issues with bugs in the T2.
Products with the T2 also no longer have the “Lifeboat” connector, which was previously present on 2016 and 2017 model Touch Bar MacBook Pro. This connector allowed a certified technician to plug in a device called a CDM Tool (Customer Data Migration Tool) to recover data off of a machine that was not functional. The removal of this connector limits the options for data recovery in the event of a problem, and Apple has never offered any data recovery service, meaning that a irreparable failure of the T2 chip or the primary board would result in complete data loss, in part due to the strong encryption provided by the T2 chip (even if the data got off, the encryption keys were lost with the T2 chip). The T2 also brought about the linkage of component serial numbers of certain internal components, such as the solid state storage, display, and trackpad, among other components. In fact, many other controllers on the logic board are now also paired to the T2, such as the WiFi and Bluetooth controller, the PMIC (Power Management Controller), and several other components. This is the exact same system used on newer iPhone models and is quite familiar to technicians who repair iPhone logic boards. While these changes are fantastic for device security and corporate and enterprise users, allowing for a very high degree of assurance that devices will refuse to boot if tampered with in any way - even from storied supply chain attacks, or other malfeasance that can be done with physical access to a machine - it has created difficulty with consumers who more often lack the expertise or awareness to keep critical data backed up, as well as the funds to perform the necessary repairs from authorized repair providers. Other issues reported that are suspected to be related to T2 are audio “cracking” or distortion on the internal speakers, and the BridgeOS becoming corrupt following a firmware update resulting in a machine that can’t boot.
I believe these hiccups will be properly addressed once macOS is fully integrated with the ARM platform. This stage of the Mac is more like a chimera of an iPhone and an Intel based computer. Technically, it does have all of the parts of an iPhone present within it, cellular radio aside, and I suspect this fusion is why these issues exist.
Recently, security researchers discovered an underlying security problem present within the Boot ROM code of the T1 and T2 chip. Due to being the same fundamental platform as earlier Apple Watch and iPhone processors, they are vulnerable to the “checkm8” exploit (CVE-2019-8900). Because of how these chips operate in a Mac, firmware modifications caused by use of the exploit will persist through OS reinstallation and machine restarts. Both the T1 and T2 chips are always on and running, though potentially in a heavily reduced power usage state, meaning the only way to clean an exploited machine is to reflash the chip, triggering a restart, or to fully exhaust or physically disconnect the battery to flush its memory. Fortunately, this exploit cannot be done remotely and requires physical access to the Mac for an extended duration, as well as a second Mac to perform the change, so the majority of users are relatively safe. As well, with a very limited execution environment and access to the primary system only through a “mailbox” protocol, the utility of exploiting these chips is extremely limited. At present, there is no known malware that has used this exploit. The proper fix will come with the next hardware revision, and is considered a low priority due to the lack of practical usage of running malicious code on the coprocessor.
At the time of writing, all current Apple computers have a T2 chip present, with the exception of the 2019 iMac lineup. This will change very soon with the expected release of the 2020 iMac lineup at WWDC, which will incorporate a T2 coprocessor as well.
Note: from here on, this turns entirely into speculation based on info gathered from a variety of disparate sources.
Right now, we are in the final steps of Stage 2. There are strong signs that an a MacBook (12”) with an ARM main processor will be announced this year at WWDC (“One more thing...”), at a Fall 2020 event, Q1 2021 event, or WWDC 2021. Based on the lack of a more concrete answer, WWDC2020 will likely not see it, but I am open to being wrong here.

Stage3 (Present/2021 - 2022/2023):

Stage 3 involves the first version of at least one fully ARM-powered Mac into Apple’s computer lineup.
I expect this will come in the form of the previously-retired 12” MacBook. There are rumors that Apple is still working internally to perfect the infamous Butterfly keyboard, and there are also signs that Apple is developing an A14x based processors with 8-12 cores designed specifically for use as the primary processor in a Mac. It makes sense that this model could see the return of the Butterfly keyboard, considering how thin and light it is intended to be, and using an A14x processor would make it will be a very capable, very portable machine, and should give customers a good taste of what is to come.
Personally, I am excited to test the new 12" “ARMbook”. I do miss my own original 12", even with all the CPU failure issues those older models had. It was a lovely form factor for me.
It's still not entirely known whether the physical design of these will change from the retired version, exactly how many cores it will have, the port configuration, etc. I have also heard rumors about the 12” model possibly supporting 5G cellular connectivity natively thanks to the A14 series processor. All of this will most likely be confirmed soon enough.
This 12” model will be the perfect stepping stone for stage 3, since Apple’s ARM processors are not yet a full-on replacement for Intel’s full processor lineup, especially at the high end, in products such as the upcoming 2020 iMac, iMac Pro, 16” MacBook Pro, and the 2019 Mac Pro.
Performance of Apple’s ARM platform compared to Intel has been a big point of contention over the last couple years, primarily due to the lack of data representative of real-world desktop usage scenarios. The iPad Pro and other models with Apple’s highest-end silicon still lack the ability to execute a lot of high end professional applications, so data about anything more than video editing and photo editing tasks benchmarks quickly becomes meaningless. While there are completely synthetic benchmarks like Geekbench, Antutu, and others, to try and bridge the gap, they are very far from being accurate or representative of the real real world performance in many instances. Even though the Apple ARM processors are incredibly powerful, and I do give constant praise to their silicon design teams, there still just isn’t enough data to show how they will perform for real-world desktop usage scenarios, and synthetic benchmarks are like standardized testing: they only show how good a platform is at running the synthetic benchmark. This type of benchmark stresses only very specific parts of each chip at a time, rather than how well it does a general task, and then boil down the complexity and nuances of each chip into a single numeric score, which is not a remotely accurate way of representing processors with vastly different capabilities and designs. It would be like gauging how well a person performs a manual labor task based on averaging only the speed of every individual muscle in the body, regardless of if, or how much, each is used. A specific group of muscles being stronger or weaker than others could wildly skew the final result, and grossly misrepresent performance of the person as a whole. Real world program performance will be the key in determining the success and future of this transition, and it will have to be great on this 12" model, but not just in a limited set of tasks, it will have to be great at *everything*. It is intended to be the first Horseman of the Apocalypse for the Intel Mac, and it better behave like one. Consumers have been expecting this, especially after 15 years of Intel processors, the continued advancement of Apple’s processors, and the decline of Intel’s market lead.
The point of this “demonstration” model is to ease both users and developers into the desktop ARM ecosystem slowly. Much like how the iPhone X paved the way for FaceID-enabled iPhones, this 12" model will pave the way towards ARM Mac systems. Some power-user type consumers may complain at first, depending on the software compatibility story, then realize it works just fine since the majority of the computer users today do not do many tasks that can’t be accomplished on an iPad or lower end computer. Apple needs to gain the public’s trust for basic tasks first, before they will be able to break into the market of users performing more hardcore or “Pro” tasks. This early model will probably not be targeted at these high-end professionals, which will allow Apple to begin to gather early information about the stability and performance of this model, day to day usability, developmental issues that need to be addressed, hardware failure analysis, etc. All of this information is crucial to Stage 4, or possibly later parts of Stage 3.
The 2 biggest concerns most people have with the architecture change is app support and Bootcamp.
Any apps released through the Mac App Store will not be a problem. Because App Store apps are submitted as LLVM IR (“Bitcode”), the system can automatically download versions compiled and optimized for ARM platforms, similar to how App Thinning on iOS works. For apps distributed outside the App Store, thing might be more tricky. There are a few ways this could go:
As for Bootcamp, while ARM-compatible versions of Windows do exist and are in development, they come with their own similar set of app support problems. Microsoft has experimented with emulating x86_64 on their ARM-based Surface products, and some other OEMs have created their own Windows-powered ARM laptops, but with very little success. Performance is a problem across the board, with other ARM silicon not being anywhere near as advanced, and with the majority of apps in the Windows ecosystem that were not developed in-house at Microsoft running terribly due to the x86_64 emulation software. If Bootcamp does come to the early ARM MacBook, it more than likely will run like very poorly for anything other than Windows UWP apps. There is a high chance it will be abandoned entirely until Windows becomes much more friendly to the architecture.
I believe this will also be a very crucial turning point for the MacBook lineup as a whole. At present, the iPad Pro paired with the Magic Keyboard is, in many ways, nearly identical to a laptop, with the biggest difference being the system software itself. While Apple executives have outright denied plans of merging the iPad and MacBook line, that could very well just be a marketing stance, shutting the down rumors in anticipation of a well-executed surprise. I think that Apple might at least re-examine the possibility of merging Macs and iPads in some capacity, but whether they proceed or not could be driven by consumer reaction to both products. Do they prefer the feel and usability of macOS on ARM, and like the separation of both products? Is there success across the industry of the ARM platform, both at the lower and higher end of the market? Do users see that iPadOS and macOS are just 2 halves of the same coin? Should there be a middle ground, and a new type of product similar to the Surface Book, but running macOS? Should Macs and iPads run a completely uniform OS? Will iPadOS ever see exposed the same sort of UNIX-based tools for IT administrators and software developers that macOS has present? These are all very real questions that will pop up in the near future.
The line between Stage 3 and Stage 4 will be blurry, and will depend on how Apple wishes to address different problems going forward, and what the reactions look like. It is very possible that only 12” will be released at first, or a handful more lower end model laptop and desktop products could be released, with high performance Macs following in Stage 4, or perhaps everything but enterprise products like Mac Pro will be switched fully. Only time will tell.

Stage 4 (the end goal):

Congratulations, you’re made it to the end of my TED talk. We are now well into the 2020s and COVID-19 Part 4 is casually catching up to the 5G = Virus crowd. All Macs have transitioned fully to ARM. iMac, MacBooks Pro and otherwise, Mac Pro, Mac Mini, everything. The future is fully Apple from top to bottom, and vertical integration leading to market dominance continues. Many other OEM have begun to follow in this path to some extent, creating more demand for a similar class of silicon from other firms.
The remainder here is pure speculation with a dash of wishful thinking. There are still a lot of things that are entirely unclear. The only concrete thing is that Stage 4 will happen when everything is running Apple’s in- house processors.
By this point, consumers will be quite familiar with the ARM Macs existing, and developers have had have enough time to transition apps fully over to the newly unified system. Any performance, battery life, or app support concerns will not be an issue at this point.
There are no more details here, it’s the end of the road, but we are left with a number of questions.
It is unclear if Apple will stick to AMD's GPUs or whether they will instead opt to use their in-house graphics solutions that have been used since the A11 series of processors.
How Thunderbolt support on these models of Mac will be achieved is unknown. While Intel has made it openly available for use, and there are plans to have USB and Thunderbolt combined in a single standard, it’s still unclear how it will play along with Apple processors. Presently, iPhones do support connecting devices via PCI Express to the processor, but it has only been used for iPhone and iPad storage. The current Apple processors simply lack the number of lanes required for even the lowest end MacBook Pro. This is an issue that would need to be addressed in order to ship a full desktop-grade platform.
There is also the question of upgradability for desktop models, and if and how there will be a replaceable, socketed version of these processors. Will standard desktop and laptop memory modules play nicely with these ARM processors? Will they drop standard memory across the board, in favor of soldered options, or continue to support user-configurable memory on some models? Will my 2023 Mac Pro play nicely with a standard PCI Express device that I buy off the shelf? Will we see a return of “Mac Edition” PCI devices?
There are still a lot of unknowns, and guessing any further in advance is too difficult. The only thing that is certain, however, is that Apple processors coming to Mac is very much within arm’s reach.
submitted by Fudge_0001 to apple [link] [comments]

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Mega Unpopular Opinion: Take-home projects can be great!

Ah, I have been debating whether or not I wanted to write this for a while now, but after seeing a few recent threads with 10-50 comments unanimously hating on take-home projects, I figured I would share my opinion.
Some of you may not read until the end, so let me preface this by saying not all take-home projects are great. I am on your side in that you should not complete a take-home project if any of the following are true:
...

With that being said, I will now move on to why I think take-home projects can be great.
For starters, it weeds out sooooo much of the competition. If you look at some job postings on LinkedIn, they can have 200+ applicants in 24 hours, and that is not even accounting for people who find the job via other means (i.e. other job boards, company website, etc). Thats a lot of applicants. Now, I know better than to assume that this subreddit is representative of the whole software industry, but clearly a take-home project potentially gets candidates TO WEED THEMSELVES OUT. So 200 candidates may have applied, but now you're competing with a significantly smaller percentage of people who actually wanted to take the time and do the take-home project. Your odds are much better now.
Now, I know exactly what you're thinking. You don't want to spend the 8-12 hours it would take to complete this take-home project, and you'd rather spend your time casting your net farther and shotgunning your resume out to more companies, but WHY NOT BOTH? You're the one looking for a job, and you are really not in the position to weed yourself out of potential employment. Some of you people have been on the hunt for a job for months and still won't stoop down to the level of giving a company that much time without being guaranteed another interview / a job. New-flash, doing a project increases your chance of getting a job, just like shotgunning your resume AND you get to practice / show off your programming skills (who knows, maybe mess around a make a project you can put on your GitHub as a sample of your work for other employers to see). On top of this, if you are someone with a lot of free-time - I'm looking at you new grads - and don't have a family/responsibilities that you need to take care of, then you really can't complain about time. Let's face it, instead of doing this project, you're watching Silicon Valley on HBO for the third time "to relax" after a "long day" of filling out the same Workday application forms. Come on, searching for a full time job should be a 40hwk job in and of itself.
My next point is that these take home projects sometimes substitute final/on-site interviews. Yea, those 5 hours interviews where you meet every hiring manager and their mother and get grilled round after round because you can't find the optimal solution for sorting a reverse binary search tree that is upside down, flipped, and cooked well done while someone is staring at you, asking questions, and forbidding you from using any resources you would have at your disposable in (almost) any given real world scenario. Yea, those are the real stress-inducing woes of the software interview process, and I would think people would want to avoid those at all costs. Anecdotally, the company that I started working for 3 months ago gave me the choice of a 4 1/2 zoom interview consisting of 4 one hour technical interviews with different hiring managers, or a take-home project that would take 6-10 hours with a 1 1/2 hour follow up discussing my project. The decision was so obvious - stress study an entire week before the interview (hint, this alone probably would take up more time than the take-home project, but on the other hand does prepare you for future interviews) and then endure the torture that is 4+ hours on a zoom call / in an office coding on a whiteboard, or spend about 1-2 hours a day for a week, with access to all resources, leisurely coding up a project, that if done correctly, increases your chance of getting a job astronomically. Not to mention, this option is becoming much more popular with COVID and WFH and the lack of being able to get candidates into the office.

All in all, I really wish more companies offered take-home projects as at least an option for their interview process. In my opinion, they are more informative for both parties, as it represents the work you will be doing if you were to get the job, and it is indicative of the level of effort and knowledge you possess in context of the position they are seeking to fill. I really wish everyone on here would stop spreading their hatred for take-home projects, especially to new grads who have never even done them. And for the love of god stop saying to bill the company for making you do a take-home project, that is just the silliest thing I have ever heard, and I DOUBT any company ever would reply to that kind of an invoice. If you really have that much adversity to them, just don't bother.

TL;DR: I believe some take-home projects are worth doing ¯\_(ツ)_/¯
submitted by Kixstander to cscareerquestions [link] [comments]

boolean

Boolean data type

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search
In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type that has one of two possible values (usually denoted true and false) which is intended to represent the two truth values of logic and Boolean algebra. It is named after George Boole, who first defined an algebraic system of logic in the mid 19th century. The Boolean data type is primarily associated with conditional) statements, which allow different actions by changing control flow depending on whether a programmer-specified Boolean condition evaluates to true or false. It is a special case of a more general logical data type (see probabilistic logic)—logic doesn't always need to be Boolean.

Contents


Generalities

In programming languages with a built-in Boolean data type, such as Pascal) and Java), the comparison operators such as > and ≠ are usually defined to return a Boolean value. Conditional and iterative commands may be defined to test Boolean-valued expressions.
Languages with no explicit Boolean data type, like C90 and Lisp), may still represent truth values by some other data type. Common Lisp uses an empty list for false, and any other value for true. The C programming language uses an integer) type, where relational expressions like i > j and logical expressions connected by && and || are defined to have value 1 if true and 0 if false, whereas the test parts of if , while , for , etc., treat any non-zero value as true.[1][2] Indeed, a Boolean variable may be regarded (and implemented) as a numerical variable with one binary digit (bit), which can store only two values. The implementation of Booleans in computers are most likely represented as a full word), rather than a bit; this is usually due to the ways computers transfer blocks of information.
Most programming languages, even those with no explicit Boolean type, have support for Boolean algebraic operations such as conjunction (AND , & , * ), disjunction (OR , | , + ), equivalence (EQV , = , == ), exclusive or/non-equivalence (XOR , NEQV , ^ , != ), and negation (NOT , ~ , ! ).
In some languages, like Ruby), Smalltalk, and Alice) the true and false values belong to separate classes), i.e., True and False , respectively, so there is no one Boolean type.
In SQL, which uses a three-valued logic for explicit comparisons because of its special treatment of Nulls), the Boolean data type (introduced in SQL:1999) is also defined to include more than two truth values, so that SQL Booleans can store all logical values resulting from the evaluation of predicates in SQL. A column of Boolean type can also be restricted to just TRUE and FALSE though.

ALGOL and the built-in boolean type

One of the earliest programming languages to provide an explicit boolean data type is ALGOL 60 (1960) with values true and false and logical operators denoted by symbols ' ∧ {\displaystyle \wedge } 📷' (and), ' ∨ {\displaystyle \vee } 📷' (or), ' ⊃ {\displaystyle \supset } 📷' (implies), ' ≡ {\displaystyle \equiv } 📷' (equivalence), and ' ¬ {\displaystyle \neg } 📷' (not). Due to input device and character set limits on many computers of the time, however, most compilers used alternative representations for many of the operators, such as AND or 'AND' .
This approach with boolean as a built-in (either primitive or otherwise predefined) data type was adopted by many later programming languages, such as Simula 67 (1967), ALGOL 68 (1970),[3] Pascal) (1970), Ada) (1980), Java) (1995), and C#) (2000), among others.

Fortran

The first version of FORTRAN (1957) and its successor FORTRAN II (1958) have no logical values or operations; even the conditional IF statement takes an arithmetic expression and branches to one of three locations according to its sign; see arithmetic IF. FORTRAN IV (1962), however, follows the ALGOL 60 example by providing a Boolean data type (LOGICAL ), truth literals (.TRUE. and .FALSE. ), Boolean-valued numeric comparison operators (.EQ. , .GT. , etc.), and logical operators (.NOT. , .AND. , .OR. ). In FORMAT statements, a specific format descriptor ('L ') is provided for the parsing or formatting of logical values.[4]

Lisp and Scheme

The language Lisp) (1958) never had a built-in Boolean data type. Instead, conditional constructs like cond assume that the logical value false is represented by the empty list () , which is defined to be the same as the special atom nil or NIL ; whereas any other s-expression is interpreted as true. For convenience, most modern dialects of Lisp predefine the atom t to have value t , so that t can be used as a mnemonic notation for true.
This approach (any value can be used as a Boolean value) was retained in most Lisp dialects (Common Lisp, Scheme), Emacs Lisp), and similar models were adopted by many scripting languages, even ones having a distinct Boolean type or Boolean values; although which values are interpreted as false and which are true vary from language to language. In Scheme, for example, the false value is an atom distinct from the empty list, so the latter is interpreted as true.

Pascal, Ada, and Haskell

The language Pascal) (1970) introduced the concept of programmer-defined enumerated types. A built-in Boolean data type was then provided as a predefined enumerated type with values FALSE and TRUE . By definition, all comparisons, logical operations, and conditional statements applied to and/or yielded Boolean values. Otherwise, the Boolean type had all the facilities which were available for enumerated types in general, such as ordering and use as indices. In contrast, converting between Boolean s and integers (or any other types) still required explicit tests or function calls, as in ALGOL 60. This approach (Boolean is an enumerated type) was adopted by most later languages which had enumerated types, such as Modula, Ada), and Haskell).

C, C++, Objective-C, AWK

Initial implementations of the language C) (1972) provided no Boolean type, and to this day Boolean values are commonly represented by integers (int s) in C programs. The comparison operators (> , == , etc.) are defined to return a signed integer (int ) result, either 0 (for false) or 1 (for true). Logical operators (&& , || , ! , etc.) and condition-testing statements (if , while ) assume that zero is false and all other values are true.
After enumerated types (enum s) were added to the American National Standards Institute version of C, ANSI C (1989), many C programmers got used to defining their own Boolean types as such, for readability reasons. However, enumerated types are equivalent to integers according to the language standards; so the effective identity between Booleans and integers is still valid for C programs.
Standard C) (since C99) provides a boolean type, called _Bool . By including the header stdbool.h , one can use the more intuitive name bool and the constants true and false . The language guarantees that any two true values will compare equal (which was impossible to achieve before the introduction of the type). Boolean values still behave as integers, can be stored in integer variables, and used anywhere integers would be valid, including in indexing, arithmetic, parsing, and formatting. This approach (Boolean values are just integers) has been retained in all later versions of C. Note, that this does not mean that any integer value can be stored in a boolean variable.
C++ has a separate Boolean data type bool , but with automatic conversions from scalar and pointer values that are very similar to those of C. This approach was adopted also by many later languages, especially by some scripting languages such as AWK.
Objective-C also has a separate Boolean data type BOOL , with possible values being YES or NO , equivalents of true and false respectively.[5] Also, in Objective-C compilers that support C99, C's _Bool type can be used, since Objective-C is a superset of C.

Perl and Lua

Perl has no boolean data type. Instead, any value can behave as boolean in boolean context (condition of if or while statement, argument of && or || , etc.). The number 0 , the strings "0" and "" , the empty list () , and the special value undef evaluate to false.[6] All else evaluates to true.
Lua) has a boolean data type, but non-boolean values can also behave as booleans. The non-value nil evaluates to false, whereas every other data type always evaluates to true, regardless of value.

Tcl

Tcl has no separate Boolean type. Like in C, the integers 0 (false) and 1 (true - in fact any nonzero integer) are used.[7]
Examples of coding:
set v 1 if { $v } { puts "V is 1 or true" }
The above will show "V is 1 or true" since the expression evaluates to '1'
set v "" if { $v } ....
The above will render an error as variable 'v' cannot be evaluated as '0' or '1'

Python, Ruby, and JavaScript

Python), from version 2.3 forward, has a bool type which is a subclass) of int , the standard integer type.[8] It has two possible values: True and False , which are special versions of 1 and 0 respectively and behave as such in arithmetic contexts. Also, a numeric value of zero (integer or fractional), the null value (None ), the empty string), and empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.) are considered Boolean false; all other values are considered Boolean true by default.[9] Classes can define how their instances are treated in a Boolean context through the special method __nonzero__ (Python 2) or __bool__ (Python 3). For containers, __len__ (the special method for determining the length of containers) is used if the explicit Boolean conversion method is not defined.
In Ruby), in contrast, only nil (Ruby's null value) and a special false object are false, all else (including the integer 0 and empty arrays) is true.
In JavaScript, the empty string ("" ), null , undefined , NaN , +0, −0 and false [10] are sometimes called falsy (of which the complement) is truthy) to distinguish between strictly type-checked and coerced Booleans.[11] As opposed to Python, empty containers (arrays , Maps, Sets) are considered truthy. Languages such as PHP also use this approach.

Next Generation Shell

Next Generation Shell, has Bool type. It has two possible values: true and false . Bool is not interchangeable with Int and have to be converted explicitly if needed. When a Boolean value of an expression is needed (for example in if statement), Bool method is called. Bool method for built-in types is defined such that it returns false for a numeric value of zero, the null value, the empty string), empty containers (i.e. lists), sets), etc.), external processes that exited with non-zero exit code; for other values Bool returns true. Types for which Bool method is defined can be used in Boolean context. When evaluating an expression in Boolean context, If no appropriate Bool method is defined, an exception is thrown.

SQL

Main article: Null (SQL) § Comparisons with NULL and the three-valued logic (3VL)#Comparisonswith_NULL_and_the_three-valued_logic(3VL))
Booleans appear in SQL when a condition is needed, such as WHERE clause, in form of predicate which is produced by using operators such as comparison operators, IN operator, IS (NOT) NULL etc. However, apart from TRUE and FALSE, these operators can also yield a third state, called UNKNOWN, when comparison with NULL is made.
The treatment of boolean values differs between SQL systems.
For example, in Microsoft SQL Server, boolean value is not supported at all, neither as a standalone data type nor representable as an integer. It shows an error message "An expression of non-boolean type specified in a context where a condition is expected" if a column is directly used in the WHERE clause, e.g. SELECT a FROM t WHERE a , while statement such as SELECT column IS NOT NULL FROM t yields a syntax error. The BIT data type, which can only store integers 0 and 1 apart from NULL, is commonly used as a workaround to store Boolean values, but workarounds need to be used such as UPDATE t SET flag = IIF(col IS NOT NULL, 1, 0) WHERE flag = 0 to convert between the integer and boolean expression.
In PostgreSQL, there is a distinct BOOLEAN type as in the standard[12] which allows predicates to be stored directly into a BOOLEAN column, and allows using a BOOLEAN column directly as a predicate in WHERE clause.
In MySQL, BOOLEAN is treated as an alias as TINYINT(1)[13], TRUE is the same as integer 1 and FALSE is the same is integer 0.[14], and treats any non-zero integer as true when evaluating conditions.
The SQL92 standard introduced IS (NOT) TRUE, IS (NOT) FALSE, IS (NOT) UNKNOWN operators which evaluate a predicate, which predated the introduction of boolean type in SQL:1999
The SQL:1999 standard introduced a BOOLEAN data type as an optional feature (T031). When restricted by a NOT NULL constraint, a SQL BOOLEAN behaves like Booleans in other languages, which can store only TRUE and FALSE values. However, if it is nullable, which is the default like all other SQL data types, it can have the special null) value also. Although the SQL standard defines three literals) for the BOOLEAN type – TRUE, FALSE, and UNKNOWN – it also says that the NULL BOOLEAN and UNKNOWN "may be used interchangeably to mean exactly the same thing".[15][16] This has caused some controversy because the identification subjects UNKNOWN to the equality comparison rules for NULL. More precisely UNKNOWN = UNKNOWN is not TRUE but UNKNOWN/NULL.[17] As of 2012 few major SQL systems implement the T031 feature.[18] Firebird and PostgreSQL are notable exceptions, although PostgreSQL implements no UNKNOWN literal; NULL can be used instead.[19]

See also

Data typesUninterpreted
Numeric
Pointer)
Text
Composite
Other
Related topics

References


  1. "PostgreSQL: Documentation: 10: 8.6. Boolean Type". www.postgresql.org. Archived from the original on 9 March 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
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Which are the top computer science websites students must visit?

Computer science is the investigation of PCs and processing ideas. It incorporates both hardware and software, just as network administration and the Internet.
The hardware part of computer science covers with electrical engineering. It includes the essential design of PC and the manner in which they work.
A crucial comprehension of how a PC “computes,” or performs calculations, gives the establishment of understanding further developed ideas. For instance, seeing how a PC works in binary enables you to see how PCs include, subtract, and perform different activities. Finding out about rational doors empowers you to understand processor engineering.
The software side of computer science spreads programming ideas just as specific programming languages. Programming ideas incorporate functions, calculations, and source code plan. Computer science additionally covers compilers, working frameworks, and software applications. Client-centered parts of computer science include PC graphics and user interface plan.
Since almost all PCs are currently associated with the Internet, the computer science umbrella spreads Internet advances also. This incorporates Internet conventions, media communications, and systems administration ideas. It likewise includes viable applications, for example, website design and system organization.

Why pursuing computer science stream?

Table of Contents
The most important part of computer science is critical thinking or problem solving, a fundamental ability forever. Students study the design, improvement, and examination of software and hardware used to tackle issues in an assortment of business, logical, and social settings.
Since PCs take care of issues to serve individuals, there is a huge human side to computer science also.

Reasons to study computer science:

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is a worldwide association for PC researchers. The ACM has built up the accompanying list of some reasons to study computer science which we quote:

The top website which computer science student should visit:

1 Stanford engineering everywhere:

Stanford Engineering Everywhere is a free asset intended to give students over the U.S. with access to a portion of the courses and instruments utilized by Stanford students to ace the basics of computing, artificial intelligence, and electrical engineering.
These materials are additionally accessible to teachers for use in classroom settings and are secured under a Creative Commons permit that guarantees they are uninhibitedly open to anybody with a PC and an Internet association.

2 Tutorials point:

If you have an enthusiasm for computer science and need to upgrade your abilities then tutorials point is the site for you. It’s an extremely famous site which offers extraordinary instructional exercises on a wide assortment of programming languages.
In this way, if you are only a beginner with no sign, at that point this site has every help available for you. It’s the best library will give you more than your expectations. The best part about this site is that it has online ide or you can say a word processor to alter codes, to assemble and run them.

3 W3schools:

The next is w3schools. Numerous specialists state if you need to turn into a fruitful web designer; at that point, there is nothing superior to W3schools. It is the most favored site for learning web advancement over us, and it’s completely free of expense. Even though you can pay for certifications.
The instructional exercises on this site offer tens and several models and references for better learning and experimentation. Likewise, numerous capable web designers were begun with the assistance of this site.
It has a wide scope of instructional exercises on Html, CSS, PHP, javascript, jquery, and a few systems too, for example, bootstrap. Not just that this site likewise has its very own online supervisor, which gives you a chance to attempt code online with no stress of establishment of the word processors independently.

4 Geeks for geeks:

This site is somewhat interesting on our list.
Geeks for Geeks offer programming languages as well as gets ready students who are going for interviews that are identified with computer science employment. The site gives all sort of arrangements extending from easiest to specialized ones.
Like Tutroialspoint and w3schools, it additionally offers you a completely practical idea or word processor which let you alter code all the more effectively. C, Python, and Java are the principal programming languages which are covered in this site.

5 Quora:

It is not a tutorial site. It is utilized to address the inquiries made by the overall population. We can likewise say that it’s fundamentally an inquiry/answer driven site, and you may discover the response to the inquiries identified with your or some other industry.
By this, we imply that it likewise has questions identified with the computer science field, which may enable you to understand your inquiries excellently and proficiently.
The explanation for its fifth position on our list is that it has an enormous network of software engineers and designers which eagerly attempt to address the inquiries made by you or the overall population. As we would see it, if you have any question, at that point you should put it on Quora.
Individuals who have the appropriate response will offer their responses, and you can likewise be able to like, remark or even upvote that answer. A few people additionally state that if you have an inquiry, at that point, Quora it, which demonstrates the intensity of this site.

6 Stackoverflow:

If you need an option that is superior to Quora, at that point StackOverflow will do it for you. This site has the greatest network of software engineers and designers the whole way across the globe. They share their issues and get a versatile arrangement from the accomplished engineers and software engineers who come and answer the issues energetically.
The StackOverflow is an excellent site to the individuals who committed errors in code and not found any answer for their code. It’s an incredibly phenomenal site, which targets computer science points.
So we prescribe you to visit it, in any event, two times each day to exceed expectations in computer science regardless of whether you are a starter or a middle of the road.
Since specialists do that. So if you are writing code and stalled out, put your issue forward on StackOverflow and pause. Before long, somebody from the network will enable you to out in the manner to fix it. It’s as straightforward as that.

7 Youtube:

All things considered, YouTube needs no presentation.
You can learn anything from a place without spending any single coin. This site is the world’s second-biggest web index on the web.
It does not just offer instructional exercises, truth be told, it has billions of recordings on different points too. For example, innovation, motion pictures, games, and so on. In this way, you can likewise utilize it as a wellspring of excitement if you need.
This suggests it as a total bundle to appreciate learning just as fun. Here, you will discover recordings identified with any point. You are running right from antiquated things to advanced science.
YouTube has everything to feature. It is additionally called the second home for makers. It is the greatest stage for instructional exercises too. As indicated by some review, YouTube has the most significant measure of recordings in a computer science theme.
It additionally has every one of the recordings identified with any point, for example, a motion picture, tech audit, programming, and so forth. What’s more, the best part is you can look through your preferred theme, and you will have the consequence of excellent free recordings there.
So good karma with that.

8 JavaTpoint:

While offering a few instructional exercises on programming languages, it additionally provides instructional practices on different issues identified with PC and current innovation.
This is something novel which isn’t offered by some other site yet. The site has instructional exercises on practically all the programming languages, including the most up to date ones also.

Importance of computer science:

Computer science benefits society in numerous ways:

1 Encouraging education:

Would you be able to envision present-day education without PC programming or the web? Regardless of whether you’re taking a web-based class, looking into for a paper or sharing work utilizing the cloud, computer science advantage has helped make this conceivable.
E-learning stages and applications give students new devices to issue solving and study, which has changed the academic world. The capacity to take classes online is additionally a significant advantage for the world—as it makes access to education for students whose areas, functions, or funds were a boundary.

2 Growing communication:

“The greatest role computer science has made is in the field of communication,” computer science has made the entire world a tiny spot—accessible readily available at this point.” Internet-based life, video calling, and chatting applications—even the applications that enable you to share records and photographs with another person long-distance. These limits have altered the workforce.

3 Accelerating healthcare progress:

Human care services will, in general, be a quite high need when you think about how to improve individuals’ lives.
One of the most energizing features of computer science is its capacity to improve and quicken each other field. “Information science and artificial intelligence (AI) as subsets of software engineering enable individuals and associations to quicken and ‘prepackage thought’. Along these lines, software engineering and human-made brainpower can make some other control many, commonly better.”

4 Positively affecting each territory of society:

Computer science makes its presence in every field. Without a computer, there is every work is incomplete. Computer science is a good profession and provides benefits to our society in several ways.

Popular jobs in computer science field:

Web Developer: A web engineer makes and looks after sites. The duties can run from making straightforward sites for eateries to out and out web applications for new companies.
Money Programmer: A money developer manages the always showing signs of change universe of bank transactions. They manage the projects and codes that deal with the large number of dollars a bank may process in multi-day. Being a software engineer for an accounting firm can be a distressing activity; however, the compensation is the reward.
Game Developer: Game engineers make the games that fuel the consistently developing game industry. Regardless of whether it’s for portable game applications or comfort gaming, there is a huge interest for qualified game developers. This field is troublesome, with information about complicated math a need.

Some Computer Science Assignment Help Websites:

These websites are popular for providing assignment help-
Codeavail
Calltutors
JavaAssignmentHelp
Coursementor
Also, read…
How Do I Complete My Programming Assignment In Short Time?
Who can provide highly Professional Programming Assignment Help?
How to get the best cheap Computer Science Homework Help?

Conclusion:

While getting a computer science degree students face difficulties in managing a balance between assignment submission and academic syllabus completion. So our codeavail site provides computer science assignment help whenever you need.
Above discussion made it clear that computer science has great importance in every field. For education purpose, there are several sites available from which a student can get help on their related topics and get help in completion of computer science assignment.
Submit your requirements or queries here now.
submitted by codeavail_expert to computersciencehub [link] [comments]

dcrd Version 1.5.0 Release Candidate 1

Release Candidates are public previews of software that are functional and nearing release, but still require testing to catch any potential issues. If you are an adventurous individual who is willing to help test and report any issues, please do so. However, be aware that running pre-release software may require a downgrade and/or redownload of the chain in extreme cases

CLI Binaries: https://github.com/decred/decred-binaries/releases/tag/v1.5.0-rc1

dcrd v1.5.0-rc1

This release of dcrd introduces a large number of updates. Some of the key highlights are:
For those unfamiliar with the voting process in Decred, all code in order to support block header commitments is already included in this release, however its enforcement will remain dormant until the stakeholders vote to activate it.
For reference, block header commitments were originally proposed and approved for initial implementation via the following Politeia proposal:
The following Decred Change Proposal (DCP) describes the proposed changes in detail and provides a full technical specification:

Downgrade Warning

The database format in v1.5.0 is not compatible with previous versions of the software. This only affects downgrades as users upgrading from previous versions will see a one time database migration.
Once this migration has been completed, it will no longer be possible to downgrade to a previous version of the software without having to delete the database and redownload the chain.

Notable Changes

Block Header Commitments Vote

A new vote with the id headercommitments is now available as of this release. After upgrading, stakeholders may set their preferences through their wallet or Voting Service Provider's (VSP) website.
The primary goal of this change is to increase the security and efficiency of lightweight clients, such as Decrediton in its lightweight mode and the dcrandroid/dcrios mobile wallets, as well as add infrastructure that paves the way for several future scalability enhancements.
A high level overview aimed at a general audience including a cost benefit analysis can be found in the Politeia proposal.
In addition, a much more in-depth treatment can be found in the motivation section of DCP0005.

Version 2 Block Filters

The block filters used by lightweight clients, such as SPV (Simplified Payment Verification) wallets, have been updated to improve their efficiency, ergonomics, and include additional information such as the full ticket commitment script. The new block filters are version 2. The older version 1 filters are now deprecated and scheduled to be removed in the next release, so consumers should update to the new filters as soon as possible.
An overview of block filters can be found in the block filters section of DCP0005.
Also, the specific contents and technical specification of the new version 2 block filters is available in the version 2 block filters section of DCP0005.
Finally, there is a one time database update to build and store the new filters for all existing historical blocks which will likely take a while to complete (typically around 8 to 10 minutes on HDDs and 4 to 5 minutes on SSDs).

Mining Infrastructure Overhaul

The mining infrastructure for building block templates and delivering the work to miners has been significantly overhauled to improve several aspects as follows:
The standard getwork RPC that PoW miners currently use to perform the mining process has been updated to make use of this new infrastructure, so existing PoW miners will seamlessly get the vast majority of benefits without requiring any updates.
However, in addition, a new notifywork RPC is now available that allows miners to register for work to be delivered asynchronously as it becomes available via a WebSockets work notification. These notifications include the same information that getwork provides along with an additional reason parameter which allows the miners to make better decisions about when they should instruct workers to discard the current template immediately or should be allowed to finish their current round before being provided with the new template.
Miners are highly encouraged to update their software to make use of the new asynchronous notification infrastructure since it is more robust, efficient, and faster than polling getwork to manually determine the aforementioned conditions.
The following is a non-exhaustive overview that highlights the major benefits of the changes for both cases:
PoW miners who choose to update their software, pool or otherwise, to make use of the asynchronous work notifications will receive additional benefits such as:
NOTE: Miners that are not rolling the timestamp field as they mine should ensure their software is upgraded to roll the timestamp to the latest timestamp each time they hand work out to a miner. This helps ensure the block timestamps are as accurate as possible.

Transaction Script Validation Optimizations

Transaction script validation has been almost completely rewritten to significantly improve its speed and reduce the number of memory allocations. While this has many more benefits than enumerated here, probably the most important ones for most stakeholders are:

Automatic External IP Address Discovery

In order for nodes to fully participate in the peer-to-peer network, they must be publicly accessible and made discoverable by advertising their external IP address. This is typically made slightly more complicated since most users run their nodes on networks behind Network Address Translation (NAT).
Previously, in addition to configuring the network firewall and/or router to allow inbound connections to port 9108 and forwarding the port to the internal IP address running dcrd, it was also required to manually set the public external IP address via the --externalip CLI option.
This release will now make use of other nodes on the network in a decentralized fashion to automatically discover the external IP address, so it is no longer necessary to manually set CLI option for the vast majority of users.

Tor IPv6 Support

It is now possible to resolve and connect to IPv6 peers over Tor in addition to the existing IPv4 support.

RPC Server Changes

New Version 2 Block Filter Query RPC (getcfilterv2)

A new RPC named getcfilterv2 is now available which can be used to retrieve the version 2 block filter for a given block along with its associated inclusion proof. See the getcfilterv2 JSON-RPC API Documentation for API details.

New Network Information Query RPC (getnetworkinfo)

A new RPC named getnetworkinfo is now available which can be used to query information related to the peer-to-peer network such as the protocol version, the local time offset, the number of current connections, the supported network protocols, the current transaction relay fee, and the external IP addresses for the local interfaces. See the getnetworkinfo JSON-RPC API Documentation for API details.

Updates to Chain State Query RPC (getblockchaininfo)

The difficulty field of the getblockchaininfo RPC is now deprecated in favor of a new field named difficultyratio which matches the result returned by the getdifficulty RPC.
See the getblockchaininfo JSON-RPC API Documentation for API details.

New Optional Version Parameter on Script Decode RPC (decodescript)

The decodescript RPC now accepts an additional optional parameter to specify the script version. The only currently supported script version in Decred is version 0 which means decoding scripts with versions other than 0 will be seen as non standard.

Removal of Deprecated Block Template RPC (getblocktemplate)

The previously deprecated getblocktemplate RPC is no longer available. All known miners are already using the preferred getwork RPC since Decred's block header supports more than enough nonce space to keep mining hardware busy without needing to resort to building custom templates with less efficient extra nonce coinbase workarounds.

Additional RPCs Available To Limited Access Users

The following RPCs that were previously unavailable to the limited access RPC user are now available to it:

Single Mining State Request

The peer-to-peer protocol message to request the current mining state (getminings) is used when peers first connect to retrieve all known votes for the current tip block. This is only useful when the peer first connects because all future votes will be relayed once the connection has been established. Consequently, nodes will now only respond to a single mining state request. Subsequent requests are ignored.

Developer Go Modules

A full suite of versioned Go modules (essentially code libraries) are now available for use by applications written in Go that wish to create robust software with reproducible, verifiable, and verified builds.
These modules are used to build dcrd itself and are therefore well maintained, tested, documented, and relatively efficient.

Changelog

This release consists of 600 commits from 17 contributors which total to 537 files changed, 41494 additional lines of code, and 29215 deleted lines of code.
All commits since the last release may be viewed on GitHub here.

Protocol and network:

Transaction relay (memory pool):

Mining:

RPC:

dcrd command-line flags and configuration:

certgen utility changes:

dcrctl utility changes:

promptsecret utility changes:

Documentation:

Developer-related package and module changes:

...continued in a separate post since it exceeds per-post limits.
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Groestlcoin 6th Anniversary Release

Introduction

Dear Groestlers, it goes without saying that 2020 has been a difficult time for millions of people worldwide. The groestlcoin team would like to take this opportunity to wish everyone our best to everyone coping with the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19. Let it bring out the best in us all and show that collectively, we can conquer anything.
The centralised banks and our national governments are facing unprecedented times with interest rates worldwide dropping to record lows in places. Rest assured that this can only strengthen the fundamentals of all decentralised cryptocurrencies and the vision that was seeded with Satoshi's Bitcoin whitepaper over 10 years ago. Despite everything that has been thrown at us this year, the show must go on and the team will still progress and advance to continue the momentum that we have developed over the past 6 years.
In addition to this, we'd like to remind you all that this is Groestlcoin's 6th Birthday release! In terms of price there have been some crazy highs and lows over the years (with highs of around $2.60 and lows of $0.000077!), but in terms of value– Groestlcoin just keeps getting more valuable! In these uncertain times, one thing remains clear – Groestlcoin will keep going and keep innovating regardless. On with what has been worked on and completed over the past few months.

UPDATED - Groestlcoin Core 2.18.2

This is a major release of Groestlcoin Core with many protocol level improvements and code optimizations, featuring the technical equivalent of Bitcoin v0.18.2 but with Groestlcoin-specific patches. On a general level, most of what is new is a new 'Groestlcoin-wallet' tool which is now distributed alongside Groestlcoin Core's other executables.
NOTE: The 'Account' API has been removed from this version which was typically used in some tip bots. Please ensure you check the release notes from 2.17.2 for details on replacing this functionality.

How to Upgrade?

Windows
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer.
OSX
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), run the dmg and drag Groestlcoin Core to Applications.
Ubuntu
http://groestlcoin.org/forum/index.php?topic=441.0

Other Linux

http://groestlcoin.org/forum/index.php?topic=97.0

Download

Download the Windows Installer (64 bit) here
Download the Windows Installer (32 bit) here
Download the Windows binaries (64 bit) here
Download the Windows binaries (32 bit) here
Download the OSX Installer here
Download the OSX binaries here
Download the Linux binaries (64 bit) here
Download the Linux binaries (32 bit) here
Download the ARM Linux binaries (64 bit) here
Download the ARM Linux binaries (32 bit) here

Source

ALL NEW - Groestlcoin Moonshine iOS/Android Wallet

Built with React Native, Moonshine utilizes Electrum-GRS's JSON-RPC methods to interact with the Groestlcoin network.
GRS Moonshine's intended use is as a hot wallet. Meaning, your keys are only as safe as the device you install this wallet on. As with any hot wallet, please ensure that you keep only a small, responsible amount of Groestlcoin on it at any given time.

Features

Download

iOS
Android

Source

ALL NEW! – HODL GRS Android Wallet

HODL GRS connects directly to the Groestlcoin network using SPV mode and doesn't rely on servers that can be hacked or disabled.
HODL GRS utilizes AES hardware encryption, app sandboxing, and the latest security features to protect users from malware, browser security holes, and even physical theft. Private keys are stored only in the secure enclave of the user's phone, inaccessible to anyone other than the user.
Simplicity and ease-of-use is the core design principle of HODL GRS. A simple recovery phrase (which we call a Backup Recovery Key) is all that is needed to restore the user's wallet if they ever lose or replace their device. HODL GRS is deterministic, which means the user's balance and transaction history can be recovered just from the backup recovery key.

Features

Download

Main Release (Main Net)
Testnet Release

Source

ALL NEW! – GroestlcoinSeed Savior

Groestlcoin Seed Savior is a tool for recovering BIP39 seed phrases.
This tool is meant to help users with recovering a slightly incorrect Groestlcoin mnemonic phrase (AKA backup or seed). You can enter an existing BIP39 mnemonic and get derived addresses in various formats.
To find out if one of the suggested addresses is the right one, you can click on the suggested address to check the address' transaction history on a block explorer.

Features

Live Version (Not Recommended)

https://www.groestlcoin.org/recovery/

Download

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/mnemonic-recovery/archive/master.zip

Source

ALL NEW! – Vanity Search Vanity Address Generator

NOTE: NVidia GPU or any CPU only. AMD graphics cards will not work with this address generator.
VanitySearch is a command-line Segwit-capable vanity Groestlcoin address generator. Add unique flair when you tell people to send Groestlcoin. Alternatively, VanitySearch can be used to generate random addresses offline.
If you're tired of the random, cryptic addresses generated by regular groestlcoin clients, then VanitySearch is the right choice for you to create a more personalized address.
VanitySearch is a groestlcoin address prefix finder. If you want to generate safe private keys, use the -s option to enter your passphrase which will be used for generating a base key as for BIP38 standard (VanitySearch.exe -s "My PassPhrase" FXPref). You can also use VanitySearch.exe -ps "My PassPhrase" which will add a crypto secure seed to your passphrase.
VanitySearch may not compute a good grid size for your GPU, so try different values using -g option in order to get the best performances. If you want to use GPUs and CPUs together, you may have best performances by keeping one CPU core for handling GPU(s)/CPU exchanges (use -t option to set the number of CPU threads).

Features

Usage

https://github.com/Groestlcoin/VanitySearch#usage

Download

Source

ALL NEW! – Groestlcoin EasyVanity 2020

Groestlcoin EasyVanity 2020 is a windows app built from the ground-up and makes it easier than ever before to create your very own bespoke bech32 address(es) when whilst not connected to the internet.
If you're tired of the random, cryptic bech32 addresses generated by regular Groestlcoin clients, then Groestlcoin EasyVanity2020 is the right choice for you to create a more personalised bech32 address. This 2020 version uses the new VanitySearch to generate not only legacy addresses (F prefix) but also Bech32 addresses (grs1 prefix).

Features

Download

Source

Remastered! – Groestlcoin WPF Desktop Wallet (v2.19.0.18)

Groestlcoin WPF is an alternative full node client with optional lightweight 'thin-client' mode based on WPF. Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) is one of Microsoft's latest approaches to a GUI framework, used with the .NET framework. Its main advantages over the original Groestlcoin client include support for exporting blockchain.dat and including a lite wallet mode.
This wallet was previously deprecated but has been brought back to life with modern standards.

Features

Remastered Improvements

Download

Source

ALL NEW! – BIP39 Key Tool

Groestlcoin BIP39 Key Tool is a GUI interface for generating Groestlcoin public and private keys. It is a standalone tool which can be used offline.

Features

Download

Windows
Linux :
 pip3 install -r requirements.txt python3 bip39\_gui.py 

Source

ALL NEW! – Electrum Personal Server

Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server aims to make using Electrum Groestlcoin wallet more secure and more private. It makes it easy to connect your Electrum-GRS wallet to your own full node.
It is an implementation of the Electrum-grs server protocol which fulfils the specific need of using the Electrum-grs wallet backed by a full node, but without the heavyweight server backend, for a single user. It allows the user to benefit from all Groestlcoin Core's resource-saving features like pruning, blocks only and disabled txindex. All Electrum-GRS's feature-richness like hardware wallet integration, multi-signature wallets, offline signing, seed recovery phrases, coin control and so on can still be used, but connected only to the user's own full node.
Full node wallets are important in Groestlcoin because they are a big part of what makes the system be trust-less. No longer do people have to trust a financial institution like a bank or PayPal, they can run software on their own computers. If Groestlcoin is digital gold, then a full node wallet is your own personal goldsmith who checks for you that received payments are genuine.
Full node wallets are also important for privacy. Using Electrum-GRS under default configuration requires it to send (hashes of) all your Groestlcoin addresses to some server. That server can then easily spy on your transactions. Full node wallets like Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server would download the entire blockchain and scan it for the user's own addresses, and therefore don't reveal to anyone else which Groestlcoin addresses they are interested in.
Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server can also broadcast transactions through Tor which improves privacy by resisting traffic analysis for broadcasted transactions which can link the IP address of the user to the transaction. If enabled this would happen transparently whenever the user simply clicks "Send" on a transaction in Electrum-grs wallet.
Note: Currently Groestlcoin Electrum Personal Server can only accept one connection at a time.

Features

Download

Windows
Linux / OSX (Instructions)

Source

UPDATED – Android Wallet 7.38.1 - Main Net + Test Net

The app allows you to send and receive Groestlcoin on your device using QR codes and URI links.
When using this app, please back up your wallet and email them to yourself! This will save your wallet in a password protected file. Then your coins can be retrieved even if you lose your phone.

Changes

Download

Main Net
Main Net (FDroid)
Test Net

Source

UPDATED – Groestlcoin Sentinel 3.5.06 (Android)

Groestlcoin Sentinel is a great solution for anyone who wants the convenience and utility of a hot wallet for receiving payments directly into their cold storage (or hardware wallets).
Sentinel accepts XPUB's, YPUB'S, ZPUB's and individual Groestlcoin address. Once added you will be able to view balances, view transactions, and (in the case of XPUB's, YPUB's and ZPUB's) deterministically generate addresses for that wallet.
Groestlcoin Sentinel is a fork of Groestlcoin Samourai Wallet with all spending and transaction building code removed.

Changes

Download

Source

UPDATED – P2Pool Test Net

Changes

Download

Pre-Hosted Testnet P2Pool is available via http://testp2pool.groestlcoin.org:21330/static/

Source

submitted by Yokomoko_Saleen to groestlcoin [link] [comments]

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