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What is Blockchain Technology?

What is Blockchain Technology?
The original article appeared here: https://www.securities.io/what-is-blockchain-technology/
Its been almost ten years since Satoshi Nakamoto first introduced Blockchain technology to the world in his 2008 Bitcoin Whitepaper. Since that time, these revolutionary networks have gained popularity in both the corporate and governmental sectors. This growth is easily explained when you consider that blockchain technology provides the world with some unique advantages that were previously unimaginable. Consequently, today, you can find blockchain technology in nearly every sector of the global economy.

What is Blockchain Technology?

A blockchain is a network of computers that share a distributed ledger across all network participants (nodes). This strategy is far different than say, fiat currencies that originate from a centralized authority figure. Importantly, this ledger keeps an unbroken chain of transactions since the birth of the network. This “chain” of transactions grows larger as new “blocks” of transactions are approved and added to it.
Bitcoin Whitepaper
In order to approve new transactions, each node works together with others to validate new blocks. Additionally, the nodes also validate the current state of the entire blockchain. In order for a new block of transactions to be added to the blockchain, they must receive approval from 51% of the network’s nodes. Nodes are also referred to as miners. In this manner, blockchain networks are decentralized networks that provide unmatched security to the world of digital assets.

Security via Decentralization

Decentralization is an important aspect of blockchain technology because it makes these revolutionary ledgers immutable and unalterable. In fact, since there is no centralized attack vector, hacking a blockchain is nearly impossible. The larger the blockchain network, the more secure the data on it remains.
For example, let’s look at the world’s largest blockchain, Bitcoin. Currently, the Bitcoin blockchain has over 10,000 active nodes located across the globe. This distribution means that in order for an attacker to alter even just one tiny piece of information on the blockchain, they would need to successfully hack 5,000+ computers at once.
While this task may not be impossible for the quantum computers of the future, it’s so unprofitable that it makes no sense to even attempt such a monumental task. Additionally, on top of successfully hacking 5000+ computers at once, an attacker would also need a supercomputer to recalculate the new blockchain transactions in time to introduce them into the network. It would literally be more affordable to create a new cryptocurrency from scratch.

Consensus Mechanisms

One of the reasons why blockchain networks are so secure is the integration of consensus mechanisms. Consensus mechanisms are cryptographic protocols that leverage the participants of a blockchain network in securing its data. In the case of Bitcoin, the Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus mechanism is used.

Proof-of-Work (PoW)

The Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism was revolutionary to the world of cryptography when it was first introduced years prior by Adam Back in his Hashcash whitepaper. In the concept, Back describes the integration of a mathematical equation to the network’s security protocols. In this way, every computer can show “proof” of their work securing the network.

Miner Rewards

It’s important to understand that nodes receive a reward for their mining efforts. These rewards adjust automatically depending on the network’s difficulty and value. In the case of Bitcoin, miners originally received 50 Bitcoin for their efforts. Today, this seems like fortune, but back in 2009, Bitcoin was only worth pennies. As the value of the token rises and the network goes, the mining rewards shrink. Today, Bitcoin miners receive 6.5 BTC if they add the next block to the chain.

SHA-256

Notably, every node validates and secures the blockchain, but only one gets to add the next block of transactions to the network. To determine who the next miner is that gets to add this block, every computer competes in a mathematical race to figure out the PoW equation. In the case of Bitcoin, the equation is known as SHA-256. Importantly, the first SHA algorithm dates back to Hashcash. This early version of the equation was known as SHA-1.
Notably, the SHA-256 equation is so difficult that it’s easier and more efficient for your computer to just make random guesses rather than attempting to figure out the equation directly. The answer to the equation must begin with a predetermined amount of 0s. In the Bitcoin blockchain, the equation’s answer must start with four zeros. However, if the network’s congestion rises, so does the difficulty of these equations. This difficulty adjusts by the addition of another zero at the beginning of the required SHA-256 answer.
Similarly to traditional commodities such as gold, there are costs that are associated with the creation and introduction of these digital assets into the market. These random guesses utilize intense computational power. This power equates to real-world costs such as electricity bills. Studies have shown that securing the Bitcoin network can use more electricity than required by entire countries. Luckily, over 80% of Bitcoin’s power consumption comes from renewable sources such as solar or hydroelectric. This cost of mining also adds measurable value to each Bitcoin.

Miners

As Bitcoin began to gain in profitability, its network’s computing power expanded significantly. In the beginning, nodes, also known as miners, could mine for Bitcoin using nothing more than your home PC. Eventually, miners realized that graphic cards were far better at the repetitive guessing required to figure out the SHA-256 algorithm. This led to a computational race in the market.

ASIC

Eventually, large blockchain firms such as Bitmain introduced Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) miners into the equation. These purpose-built miners were thousands of times more efficient at guessing the SHA-256 algorithm than the GPUs and CPUs before them. Consequently, their introduction created a scenario in which the average miner now needed to invest thousands in mining equipment to stay relevant.

Mining Pools

Luckily, some creative minds in the field began to think of ways to level the playing field out again. They developed “mining pools.” A mining pool is a network of miners that all share computational power for the common goal of mining blockchain transactions. Importantly, mining pool participants receive a percentage of the reward based on their contributions to the network’s overall hash (computational power).
Importantly, over the last three years, there has been a push to move away from power-hungry consensus mechanisms such as PoW. This desire to secure blockchains in a more efficient manner has led to the development of some truly unique consensus mechanisms in the sector.

Proof-of-Stake (PoS)

The Proof-of-Stake mechanism does away with the difficult mathematical algorithms and instead utilizes a more psychological approach to securing the network. In a PoS blockchain, users don’t need to compete mathematically to add the next block to the blockchain. Instead, PoS users “stake” their coins via network wallets to secure the network. The way staking works is simple.
Keeping a certain amount of coins in your wallet allows you to participate in transaction validations. The more coins you stake, the more likely the chances are you get to add the next block of transactions to the network. In most PoS systems, a miner from those with the most tokens staked at the time receives the chance to add the blocks.
The advantages of a PoS consensus mechanism are immediately evident. For one, you don’t need to pour tons of resources into your network to keep it safe. Additionally, since nodes are chosen based on their amount of staked coins, there is never a scenario in which a node gains anything from validating incorrect transactions. Basically, a hacker would have to fully invest in the cryptocurrency prior to attacking the network. In this way, PoS systems create a huge deterrent to attackers.

The Future of Blockchain Technology

Blockchain technology has come a long way from its early days as a means to secure cryptocurrency networks. Today, blockchain technology has numerous uses across every type of industry imaginable. Specifically, blockchain programs have impacted the logistical, financial, and data security sectors in a major way.

Blockchain Technology Logistics

Blockchain logistical systems are more efficient and cost-effective to operate than traditional paper-based models. In fact, the immutable and unalterable nature of blockchain tech makes it ideally suited to logistical tasks. Soon, you may be able to ascertain much more information regarding the creation and delivery of your products thanks to these new-age systems emerging.

Fundraising

Blockchain technology has also altered the way in which businesses raise funds. In a traditional corporate crowdfunding strategy such as an IPO, companies must balance between cost-effectiveness and participation. The inability to process smaller transactions meant that for the longest time, companies had to turn away potential investors. Nowadays, blockchain technology enables businesses to easily automate these procedures via smart contracts.

Smart Contracts

Smart Contracts feature preprogrammed protocols that execute when they receive a certain amount of cryptocurrency sent to their address. These contracts live on the blockchain and enable remarkable functionality. For example, in the case of fundraising, a smart contract can automate processes such as the approval of investors and the distribution of funds.

Blockchain Technology Today

You can expect to see further expansion of the blockchain sector in the coming months as more governments and institutions explore its benefits. For now, the blockchain revolution is well underway.
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Which are your Top 5 favourite coins out of the Top 100? An analysis.

I am putting together my investment portfolio for 2018 and made a complete summary of the current Top 100. Interestingly, I noticed that all coins can be categorized into 12 markets. Which markets do you think will play the biggest role in the coming year?
Here is a complete overview of all coins in an excel sheet including name, market, TPS, risk profile, time since launch (negative numbers mean that they are launching that many months in the future) and market cap. You can also sort by all of these fields of course. Coins written in bold are the strongest contenders within their market either due to having the best technology or having a small market cap and still excellent technology and potential. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1s8PHcNvvjuy848q18py_CGcu8elRGQAUIf86EYh4QZo/edit#gid=0
The 12 markets are
  1. Currency 13 coins
  2. Platform 25 coins
  3. Ecosystem 9 coins
  4. Privacy 10 coins
  5. Currency Exchange Tool 8 coins
  6. Gaming & Gambling 5 coins
  7. Misc 15 coins
  8. Social Network 4 coins
  9. Fee Token 3 coins
  10. Decentralized Data Storage 4 coins
  11. Cloud Computing 3 coins
  12. Stable Coin 2 coins
Before we look at the individual markets, we need to take a look of the overall market and its biggest issue scalability first:
Cryptocurrencies aim to be a decentralized currency that can be used worldwide. Its goal is to replace dollar, Euro, Yen, all FIAT currencies worldwide. The coin that will achieve that will be worth several trillion dollars.
Bitcoin can only process 7 transactions per second (TPS). In order to replace all FIAT, it would need to perform at at least VISA levels, which usually processes around 3,000 TPS, up to 25,000 TPS during peak times and a maximum of 64,000 TPS. That means that this cryptocurrency would need to be able to perform at least several thousand TPS. However, a ground breaking technology should not look at current technology to set a goal for its use, i.e. estimating the number of emails sent in 1990 based on the number of faxes sent wasn’t a good estimate.
For that reason, 10,000 TPS is the absolute baseline for a cryptocurrency that wants to replace FIAT. This brings me to IOTA, which wants to connect all 80 billion IoT devices that are expected to exist by 2025, which constantly communicate with each other, creating 80 billion or more transactions per second. This is the benchmark that cryptocurrencies should be aiming for. Currently, 8 billion devices are connected to the Internet.
With its Lightning network recently launched, Bitcoin is realistically looking at 50,000 possible soon. Other notable cryptocurrencies besides IOTA and Bitcoin are Nano with 7,000 TPS already tested, Dash with several billion TPS possible with Masternodes, Neo, LISK and RHOC with 100,000 TPS by 2020, Ripple with 50,000 TPS, Ethereum with 10,000 with Sharding.
However, it needs to be said that scalability usually goes at the cost of decentralization and security. So, it needs to be seen, which of these technologies can prove itself resilient and performant.
Without further ado, here are the coins of the first market

Market 1 - Currency:

  1. Bitcoin: 1st generation blockchain with currently bad scalability currently, though the implementation of the Lightning Network looks promising and could alleviate most scalability concerns, scalability and high energy use.
  2. Ripple: Centralized currency that might become very successful due to tight involvement with banks and cross-border payments for financial institutions; banks and companies like Western Union and Moneygram (who they are currently working with) as customers customers. However, it seems they are aiming for more decentralization now.https://ripple.com/dev-blog/decentralization-strategy-update/. Has high TPS due to Proof of Correctness algorithm.
  3. Bitcoin Cash: Bitcoin fork with the difference of having an 8 times bigger block size, making it 8 times more scalable than Bitcoin currently. Further block size increases are planned. Only significant difference is bigger block size while big blocks lead to further problems that don't seem to do well beyond a few thousand TPS. Opponents to a block size argue that increasing the block size limit is unimaginative, offers only temporary relief, and damages decentralization by increasing costs of participation. In order to preserve decentralization, system requirements to participate should be kept low. To understand this, consider an extreme example: very big blocks (1GB+) would require data center level resources to validate the blockchain. This would preclude all but the wealthiest individuals from participating.Community seems more open than Bitcoin's though.
  4. Litecoin : Little brother of Bitcoin. Bitcoin fork with different mining algorithm but not much else.Copies everything that Bitcoin does pretty much. Lack of real innovation.
  5. Dash: Dash (Digital Cash) is a fork of Bitcoin and focuses on user ease. It has very fast transactions within seconds, low fees and uses Proof of Service from Masternodes for consensus. They are currently building a system called Evolution which will allow users to send money using usernames and merchants will find it easy to integrate Dash using the API. You could say Dash is trying to be a PayPal of cryptocurrencies. Currently, cryptocurrencies must choose between decentralization, speed, scalability and can pick only 2. With Masternodes, Dash picked speed and scalability at some cost of decentralization, since with Masternodes the voting power is shifted towards Masternodes, which are run by Dash users who own the most Dash.
  6. IOTA: 3rd generation blockchain called Tangle, which has a high scalability, no fees and instant transactions. IOTA aims to be the connective layer between all 80 billion IOT devices that are expected to be connected to the Internet in 2025, possibly creating 80 billion transactions per second or 800 billion TPS, who knows. However, it needs to be seen if the Tangle can keep up with this scalability and iron out its security issues that have not yet been completely resolved.
  7. Nano: 3rd generation blockchain called Block Lattice with high scalability, no fees and instant transactions. Unlike IOTA, Nano only wants to be a payment processor and nothing else, for now at least. With Nano, every user has their own blockchain and has to perform a small amount of computing for each transaction, which makes Nano perform at 300 TPS with no problems and 7,000 TPS have also been tested successfully. Very promising 3rd gen technology and strong focus on only being the fastest currency without trying to be everything.
  8. Decred: As mining operations have grown, Bitcoin’s decision-making process has become more centralized, with the largest mining companies holding large amounts of power over the Bitcoin improvement process. Decred focuses heavily on decentralization with their PoW Pos hybrid governance system to become what Bitcoin was set out to be. They will soon implement the Lightning Network to scale up. While there do not seem to be more differences to Bitcoin besides the novel hybrid consensus algorithm, which Ethereum, Aeternity and Bitcoin Atom are also implementing, the welcoming and positive Decred community and professoinal team add another level of potential to the coin.
  9. Aeternity: We’ve seen recently, that it’s difficult to scale the execution of smart contracts on the blockchain. Crypto Kitties is a great example. Something as simple as creating and trading unique assets on Ethereum bogged the network down when transaction volume soared. Ethereum and Zilliqa address this problem with Sharding. Aeternity focuses on increasing the scalability of smart contracts and dapps by moving smart contracts off-chain. Instead of running on the blockchain, smart contracts on Aeternity run in private state channels between the parties involved in the contracts. State channels are lines of communication between parties in a smart contract. They don’t touch the blockchain unless they need to for adjudication or transfer of value. Because they’re off-chain, state channel contracts can operate much more efficiently. They don’t need to pay the network for every time they compute and can also operate with greater privacy. An important aspect of smart contract and dapp development is access to outside data sources. This could mean checking the weather in London, score of a football game, or price of gold. Oracles provide access to data hosted outside the blockchain. In many blockchain projects, oracles represent a security risk and potential point of failure, since they tend to be singular, centralized data streams. Aeternity proposes decentralizing oracles with their oracle machine. Doing so would make outside data immutable and unchangeable once it reaches Aeternity’s blockchain. Of course, the data source could still be hacked, so Aeternity implements a prediction market where users can bet on the accuracy and honesty of incoming data from various oracles.It also uses prediction markets for various voting and verification purposes within the platform. Aeternity’s network runs on on a hybrid of proof of work and proof of stake. Founded by a long-time crypto-enthusiast and early colleague of Vitalik Buterin, Yanislav Malahov. Promising concept though not product yet
  10. Bitcoin Atom: Atomic Swaps and hybrid consenus. This looks like the only Bitcoin clone that actually is looking to innovate next to Bitcoin Cash.
  11. Dogecoin: Litecoin fork, fantastic community, though lagging behind a bit in technology.
  12. Bitcoin Gold: A bit better security than bitcoin through ASIC resistant algorithm, but that's it. Not that interesting.
  13. Digibyte: Digibyte's PoS blockchain is spread over a 100,000+ servers, phones, computers, and nodes across the globe, aiming for the ultimate level of decentralization. DigiByte rebalances the load between the five mining algorithms by adjusting the difficulty of each so one algorithm doesn’t become dominant. The algorithm's asymmetric difficulty has gained notoriety and been deployed in many other blockchains.DigiByte’s adoption over the past four years has been slow. It’s still a relatively obscure currency compared its competitors. The DigiByte website offers a lot of great marketing copy and buzzwords. However, there’s not much technical information about what they have planned for the future. You could say Digibyte is like Bitcoin, but with shorter blocktimes and a multi-algorithm. However, that's not really a difference big enough to truly set themselves apart from Bitcoin, since these technologies could be implemented by any blockchain without much difficulty. Their decentralization is probably their strongest asset, however, this also change quickly if the currency takes off and big miners decide to go into Digibyte.
  14. Bitcoin Diamond Asic resistant Bitcoin and Copycat

Market 2 - Platform

Most of the cryptos here have smart contracts and allow dapps (Decentralized apps) to be build on their platform and to use their token as an exchange of value between dapp services.
  1. Ethereum: 2nd generation blockchain that allows the use of smart contracts. Bad scalability currently, though this concern could be alleviated by the soon to be implemented Lightning Network aka Plasma and its Sharding concept.
  2. EOS: Promising technology that wants to be able do everything, from smart contracts like Ethereum, scalability similar to Nano with 1000 tx/second + near instant transactions and zero fees, to also wanting to be a platform for dapps. However, EOS doesn't have a product yet and everything is just promises still. Highly overvalued right now. However, there are lots of red flags, have dumped $500 million Ether over the last 2 months and possibly bought back EOS to increase the size of their ICO, which has been going on for over a year and has raised several billion dollars. All in all, their market cap is way too high for that and not even having a product.
  3. Cardano: Similar to Ethereum/EOS, however, only promises made with no delivery yet, highly overrated right now. Interesting concept though. Market cap way too high for not even having a product. Somewhat promising technology.
  4. VeChain: Singapore-based project that’s building a business enterprise platform and inventory tracking system. Examples are verifying genuine luxury goods and food supply chains. Has one of the strongest communities in the crypto world. Most hyped token of all, with merit though.
  5. Neo: Neo is a platform, similar to Eth, but more extensive, allowing dapps and smart contracts, but with a different smart contract gas system, consensus mechanism (PoS vs. dBfT), governance model, fixed vs unfixed supply, expensive contracts vs nearly free contracts, different ideologies for real world adoption. There are currently only 9 nodes, each of which are being run by a company/entity hand selected by the NEO council (most of which are located in china) and are under contract. This means that although the locations of the nodes may differ, ultimately the neo council can bring them down due to their legal contracts. In fact this has been done in the past when the neo council was moving 50 million neo that had been locked up. Also dbft (or neo's implmentation of it) has failed underload causing network outages during major icos. The first step in decentralization is that the NEO Counsel will select trusted nodes (Universities, business partners, etc.) and slowly become less centralized that way. The final step in decentralization will be allowing NEO holders to vote for new nodes, similar to a DPoS system (ARK/EOS/LISK). NEO has a regulation/government friendly ideology. Finally they are trying to work undewith the Chinese government in regards to regulations. If for some reason they wanted it shut down, they could just shut it down.
  6. Stellar: PoS system, similar goals as Ripple, but more of a platform than only a currency. 80% of Stellar are owned by Stellar.org still, making the currency centralized.
  7. Ethereum classic: Original Ethereum that decided not to fork after a hack. The Ethereum that we know is its fork. Uninteresing, because it has a lot of less resources than Ethereum now and a lot less community support.
  8. Ziliqa: Zilliqa is building a new way of sharding. 2400 tpx already tested, 10,000 tps soon possible by being linearly scalable with the number of nodes. That means, the more nodes, the faster the network gets. They are looking at implementing privacy as well.
  9. QTUM: Enables Smart contracts on the Bitcoin blockchain. Useful.
  10. Icon: Korean ethereum. Decentralized application platform that's building communities in partnership with banks, insurance providers, hospitals, and universities. Focused on ID verification and payments. No big differentiators to the other 20 Ethereums, except that is has a product. That is a plus. Maybe cheap alternative to Ethereum.
  11. LISK: Lisk's difference to other BaaS is that side chains are independent to the main chain and have to have their own nodes. Similar to neo whole allows dapps to deploy their blockchain to. However, Lisk is currently somewhat centralized with a small group of members owning more than 50% of the delegated positions. Lisk plans to change the consensus algorithm for that reason in the near future.
  12. Rchain: Similar to Ethereum with smart contract, though much more scalable at an expected 40,000 TPS and possible 100,000 TPS. Not launched yet. No product launched yet, though promising technology. Not overvalued, probably at the right price right now.
  13. ARDR: Similar to Lisk. Ardor is a public blockchain platform that will allow people to utilize the blockchain technology of Nxt through the use of child chains. A child chain, which is a ‘light’ blockchain that can be customized to a certain extent, is designed to allow easy self-deploy for your own blockchain. Nxt claims that users will "not need to worry" about security, as that part is now handled by the main chain (Ardor). This is the chief innovation of Ardor. Ardor was evolved from NXT by the same company. NEM started as a NXT clone.
  14. Ontology: Similar to Neo. Interesting coin
  15. Bytom: Bytom is an interactive protocol of multiple byte assets. Heterogeneous byte-assets (indigenous digital currency, digital assets) that operate in different forms on the Bytom Blockchain and atomic assets (warrants, securities, dividends, bonds, intelligence information, forecasting information and other information that exist in the physical world) can be registered, exchanged, gambled and engaged in other more complicated and contract-based interoperations via Bytom.
  16. Nxt: Similar to Lisk
  17. Stratis: Different to LISK, Stratis will allow businesses and organizations to create their own blockchain according to their own needs, but secured on the parent Stratis chain. Stratis’s simple interface will allow organizations to quickly and easily deploy and/or test blockchain functionality of the Ethereum, BitShares, BitCoin, Lisk and Stratis environements.
  18. Status: Status provides access to all of Ethereum’s decentralized applications (dapps) through an app on your smartphone. It opens the door to mass adoption of Ethereum dapps by targeting the fastest growing computer segment in the world – smartphone users.16. Ark: Fork of Lisk that focuses on a smaller feature set. Ark wallets can only vote for one delegate at a time which forces delegates to compete against each other and makes cartel formations incredibly hard, if not impossible.
  19. Neblio: Similar to Neo, but 30x smaller market cap.
  20. NEM: Is similar to Neo No marketing team, very high market cap for little clarilty what they do.
  21. Bancor: Bancor is a Decentralized Liquidity Network that allows you to hold any Ethereum token and convert it to any other token in the network, with no counter party, at an automatically calculated price, using a simple web wallet.
  22. Dragonchain: The Purpose of DragonChain is to help companies quickly and easily incorporate blockchain into their business applications. Many companies might be interested in making this transition because of the benefits associated with serving clients over a blockchain – increased efficiency and security for transactions, a reduction of costs from eliminating potential fraud and scams, etc.
  23. Skycoin: Transactions with zero fees that take apparently two seconds, unlimited transaction rate, no need for miners and block rewards, low power usage, all of the usual cryptocurrency technical vulnerabilities fixed, a consensus mechanism superior to anything that exists, resistant to all conceivable threats (government censorship, community infighting, cybenucleaconventional warfare, etc). Skycoin has their own consensus algorithm known as Obelisk written and published academically by an early developer of Ethereum. Obelisk is a non-energy intensive consensus algorithm based on a concept called ‘web of trust dynamics’ which is completely different to PoW, PoS, and their derivatives. Skywire, the flagship application of Skycoin, has the ambitious goal of decentralizing the internet at the hardware level and is about to begin the testnet in April. However, this is just one of the many facets of the Skycoin ecosystem. Skywire will not only provide decentralized bandwidth but also storage and computation, completing the holy trinity of commodities essential for the new internet. Skycion a smear campaign launched against it, though they seem legit and reliable. Thus, they are probably undervalued.

Market 3 - Ecosystem

The 3rd market with 11 coins is comprised of ecosystem coins, which aim to strengthen the ease of use within the crypto space through decentralized exchanges, open standards for apps and more
  1. Nebulas: Similar to how Google indexes webpages Nebulas will index blockchain projects, smart contracts & data using the Nebulas rank algorithm that sifts & sorts the data. Developers rewarded NAS to develop & deploy on NAS chain. Nebulas calls this developer incentive protocol – basically rewards are issued based on how often dapp/contract etc. is used, the more the better the rewards and Proof of devotion. Works like DPoS except the best, most economically incentivised developers (Bookkeeppers) get the forging spots. Ensuring brains stay with the project (Cross between PoI & PoS). 2,400 TPS+, DAG used to solve the inter-transaction dependencies in the PEE (Parallel Execution Environment) feature, first crypto Wallet that supports the Lightening Network.
  2. Waves: Decentralized exchange and crowdfunding platform. Let’s companies and projects to issue and manage their own digital coin tokens to raise money.
  3. Salt: Leveraging blockchain assets to secure cash loands. Plans to offer cash loans in traditional currencies, backed by your cryptocurrency assets. Allows lenders worldwide to skip credit checks for easier access to affordable loans.
  4. CHAINLINK: ChainLink is a decentralized oracle service, the first of its kind. Oracles are defined as an ‘agent’ that finds and verifies real-world occurrences and submits this information to a blockchain to be used in smart contracts.With ChainLink, smart contract users can use the network’s oracles to retrieve data from off-chain application program interfaces (APIs), data pools, and other resources and integrate them into the blockchain and smart contracts. Basically, ChainLink takes information that is external to blockchain applications and puts it on-chain. The difference to Aeternity is that Chainlink deploys the smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain while Aeternity has its own chain.
  5. WTC: Combines blockchain with IoT to create a management system for supply chains Interesting
  6. Ethos unifyies all cryptos. Ethos is building a multi-cryptocurrency phone wallet. The team is also building an investment diversification tool and a social network
  7. Aion: Aion is the token that pays for services on the Aeternity platform.
  8. USDT: is no cryptocurrency really, but a replacement for dollar for trading After months of asking for proof of dollar backing, still no response from Tether.

Market 4 - Privacy

The 4th market are privacy coins. As you might know, Bitcoin is not anonymous. If the IRS or any other party asks an exchange who is the identity behind a specific Bitcoin address, they know who you are and can track back almost all of the Bitcoin transactions you have ever made and all your account balances. Privacy coins aim to prevent exactly that through address fungability, which changes addresses constantly, IP obfuscation and more. There are 2 types of privacy coins, one with completely privacy and one with optional privacy. Optional Privacy coins like Dash and Nav have the advantage of more user friendliness over completely privacy coins such as Monero and Enigma.
  1. Monero: Currently most popular privacy coin, though with a very high market cap. Since their privacy is all on chain, all prior transactions would be deanonymized if their protocol is ever cracked. This requires a quantum computing attack though. PIVX is better in that regard.
  2. Zcash: A decentralized and open-source cryptocurrency that hide the sender, recipient, and value of transactions. Offers users the option to make transactions public later for auditing. Decent privacy coin, though no default privacy
  3. Verge: Calls itself privacy coin without providing private transactions, multiple problems over the last weeks has a toxic community, and way too much hype for what they have.
  4. Bytecoin: First privacy-focused cryptocurrency with anonymous transactions. Bytecoin’s code was later adapted to create Monero, the more well-known anonymous cryptocurrency. Has several scam accusations, 80% pre-mine, bad devs, bad tech
  5. Bitcoin Private: A merge fork of Bitcoin and Zclassic with Zclassic being a fork of Zcash with the difference of a lack of a founders fee required to mine a valid block. This promotes a fair distribution, preventing centralized coin ownership and control. Bitcoin private offers the optional ability to keep the sender, receiver, and amount private in a given transaction. However, this is already offered by several good privacy coins (Monero, PIVX) and Bitcoin private doesn't offer much more beyond this.
  6. Komodo: The Komodo blockchain platform uses Komodo’s open-source cryptocurrency for doing transparent, anonymous, private, and fungible transactions. They are then made ultra-secure using Bitcoin’s blockchain via a Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) protocol and decentralized crowdfunding (ICO) platform to remove middlemen from project funding. Offers services for startups to create and manage their own Blockchains.
  7. PIVX: As a fork of Dash, PIVX uses an advanced implementation of the Zerocoin protocol to provide it’s privacy. This is a form of zeroknowledge proofs, which allow users to spend ‘Zerocoins’ that have no link back to them. Unlike Zcash u have denominations in PIVX, so they can’t track users by their payment amount being equal to the amount of ‘minted’ coins, because everyone uses the same denominations. PIVX is also implementing Bulletproofs, just like Monero, and this will take care of arguably the biggest weakness of zeroknowledge protocols: the trusted setup.
  8. Zcoin: PoW cryptocurrency. Private financial transactions, enabled by the Zerocoin Protocol. Zcoin is the first full implementation of the Zerocoin Protocol, which allows users to have complete privacy via Zero-Knowledge cryptographic proofs.
  9. Enigma: Monero is to Bitcoin what enigma is to Ethereum. Enigma is for making the data used in smart contracts private. More of a platform for dapps than a currency like Monero. Very promising.
  10. Navcoin: Like bitcoin but with added privacy and pos and 1,170 tps, but only because of very short 30 second block times. Though, privacy is optional, but aims to be more user friendly than Monero. However, doesn't really decide if it wants to be a privacy coin or not. Same as Zcash.Strong technology, non-shady team.
  11. Tenx: Raised 80 million, offers cryptocurrency-linked credit cards that let you spend virtual money in real life. Developing a series of payment platforms to make spending cryptocurrency easier. However, the question is if full privacy coins will be hindered in growth through government regulations and optional privacy coins will become more successful through ease of use and no regulatory hindrance.

Market 5 - Currency Exchange Tool

Due to the sheer number of different cryptocurrencies, exchanging one currency for the other it still cumbersome. Further, merchants don’t want to deal with overcluttered options of accepting cryptocurrencies. This is where exchange tool like Req come in, which allow easy and simple exchange of currencies.
  1. Cryptonex: Fiat and currency exchange between various blockchain services, similar to REQ.
  2. QASH: Qash is used to fuel its liquid platform which will be an exchange that will distribute their liquidity pool. Its product, the Worldbook is a multi-exchange order book that matches crypto to crypto, and crypto to fiat and the reverse across all currencies. E.g., someone is selling Bitcoin is USD on exchange1 not owned by Quoine and someone is buying Bitcoin in EURO on exchange 2 not owned by Quoine. If the forex conversions and crypto conversions match then the trade will go through and the Worldbook will match it, it'll make the sale and the purchase on either exchange and each user will get what they wanted, which means exchanges with lower liquidity if they join the Worldbook will be able to fill orders and take trade fees they otherwise would miss out on.They turned it on to test it a few months ago for an hour or so and their exchange was the top exchange in the world by 4x volume for the day because all Worldbook trades ran through it. Binance wants BNB to be used on their one exchange. Qash wants their QASH token embedded in all of their partners. More info here https://www.reddit.com/CryptoCurrency/comments/8a8lnwhich_are_your_top_5_favourite_coins_out_of_the/dwyjcbb/?context=3
  3. Kyber: network Exchange between cryptocurrencies, similar to REQ. Features automatic coin conversions for payments. Also offers payment tools for developers and a cryptocurrency wallet.
  4. Achain: Building a boundless blockchain world like Req .
  5. Req: Exchange between cryptocurrencies.
  6. Bitshares: Exchange between cryptocurrencies. Noteworthy are the 1.5 second average block times and throughput potential of 100,000 transactions per second with currently 2,400 TPS having been proven. However, bitshares had several Scam accusations in the past.
  7. Loopring: A protocol that will enable higher liquidity between exchanges and personal wallets.
  8. ZRX: Open standard for dapps. Open, permissionless protocol allowing for ERC20 tokens to be traded on the Ethereum blockchain. In 0x protocol, orders are transported off-chain, massively reducing gas costs and eliminating blockchain bloat. Relayers help broadcast orders and collect a fee each time they facilitate a trade. Anyone can build a relayer.

Market 6 - Gaming

With an industry size of $108B worldwide, Gaming is one of the largest markets in the world. For sure, cryptocurrencies will want to have a share of that pie.
  1. Storm: Mobile game currency on a platform with 9 million players.
  2. Fun: A platform for casino operators to host trustless, provably-fair gambling through the use of smart contracts, as well as creating their own implementation of state channels for scalability.
  3. Electroneum: Mobile game currency They have lots of technical problems, such as several 51% attacks
  4. Wax: Marketplace to trade in-game items

Market 7 - Misc

There are various markets being tapped right now. They are all summed up under misc.
  1. OMG: Omise is designed to enable financial services for people without bank accounts. It works worldwide and with both traditional money and cryptocurrencies.
  2. Power ledger: Australian blockchain-based cryptocurrency and energy trading platform that allows for decentralized selling and buying of renewable energy. Unique market and rather untapped market in the crypto space.
  3. Populous: A platform that connects business owners and invoice buyers without middlemen. Invoice sellers get cash flow to fund their business and invoice buyers earn interest. Similar to OMG, small market.
  4. Monacoin: The first Japanese cryptocurrency. Focused on micro-transactions and based on a popular internet meme of a type-written cat. This makes it similar to Dogecoin. Very niche, tiny market.
  5. Revain: Legitimizing reviews via the blockchain. Interesting concept, though market not as big.
  6. Augur: Platform to forecast and make wagers on the outcome of real-world events (AKA decentralized predictions). Uses predictions for a “wisdom of the crowd” search engine. Not launched yet.
  7. Substratum: Revolutionzing hosting industry via per request billing as a decentralized internet hosting system. Uses a global network of private computers to create the free and open internet of the future. Participants earn cryptocurrency. Interesting concept.
  8. Veritaseum: Is supposed to be a peer to peer gateway, though it looks like very much like a scam.
  9. TRON: Tronix is looking to capitalize on ownership of internet data to content creators. However, they plagiarized their white paper, which is a no go. They apologized, so it needs to be seen how they will conduct themselves in the future. Extremely high market cap for not having a product, nor proof of concept.
  10. Syscoin: A cryptocurrency with a decentralized marketplace that lets people buy and sell products directly without third parties. Trying to remove middlemen like eBay and Amazon.
  11. Hshare: Most likely scam because of no code changes, most likely pump and dump scheme, dead community.
  12. BAT: An Ethereum-based token that can be exchanged between content creators, users, and advertisers. Decentralized ad-network that pays based on engagement and attention.
  13. Dent: Decentralizeed exchange of mobile data, enabling mobile data to be marketed, purchased or distributed, so that users can quickly buy or sell data from any user to another one.
  14. Ncash: End to end encrypted Identification system for retailers to better serve their customers .
  15. Factom Secure record-keeping system that allows companies to store their data directly on the Blockchain. The goal is to make records more transparent and trustworthy .

Market 8 - Social network

Web 2.0 is still going strong and Web 3.0 is not going to ignore it. There are several gaming tokens already out there and a few with decent traction already, such as Steem, which is Reddit with voting through money is a very interesting one.
  1. Mithril: As users create content via social media, they will be rewarded for their contribution, the better the contribution, the more they will earn
  2. Steem: Like Reddit, but voting with money. Already launched product and Alexa rank 1,000 Thumbs up.
  3. Rdd: Reddcoin makes the process of sending and receiving money fun and rewarding for everyone. Reddcoin is dedicated to one thing – tipping on social networks as a way to bring cryptocurrency awareness and experience to the general public.
  4. Kin: Token for the platform Kik. Kik has a massive user base of 400 million people. Replacing paying with FIAT with paying with KIN might get this token to mass adoption very quickly.

Market 9 - Fee token

Popular exchanges realized that they can make a few billion dollars more by launching their own token. Owning these tokens gives you a reduction of trading fees. Very handy and BNB (Binance Coin) has been one of the most resilient tokens, which have withstood most market drops over the last weeks and was among the very few coins that could show growth.
  1. BNB: Fee token for Binance
  2. Gas: Not a Fee token for an exchange, but it is a dividend paid out on Neo and a currency that can be used to purchase services for dapps.
  3. Kucoin: Fee token for Kucoin

Market 10 - Decentralized Data Storage

Currently, data storage happens with large companies or data centers that are prone to failure or losing data. Decentralized data storage makes loss of data almost impossible by distributing your files to numerous clients that hold tiny pieces of your data. Remember Torrents? Torrents use a peer-to-peer network. It is similar to that. Many users maintain copies of the same file, when someone wants a copy of that file, they send a request to the peer-to-peer network., users who have the file, known as seeds, send fragments of the file to the requester., he requester receives many fragments from many different seeds, and the torrent software recompiles these fragments to form the original file.
  1. Gbyte: Byteball data is stored and ordered using directed acyclic graph (DAG) rather than blockchain. This allows all users to secure each other's data by referencing earlier data units created by other users, and also removes scalability limits common for blockchains, such as blocksize issue.
  2. Siacoin: Siacoin is decentralized storage platform. Distributes encrypted files to thousands of private users who get paid for renting out their disk space. Anybody with siacoins can rent storage from hosts on Sia. This is accomplish via "smart" storage contracts stored on the Sia blockchain. The smart contract provides a payment to the host only after the host has kept the file for a given amount of time. If the host loses the file, the host does not get paid.
  3. Maidsafecoin: MaidSafe stands for Massive Array of Internet Disks, Secure Access for Everyone.Instead of working with data centers and servers that are common today and are vulnerable to data theft and monitoring, SAFE’s network uses advanced P2P technology to bring together the spare computing capacity of all SAFE users and create a global network. You can think of SAFE as a crowd-sourced internet. All data and applications reside in this network. It’s an autonomous network that automatically sets prices and distributes data and rents out hard drive disk space with a Blockchain-based storage solutions.When you upload a file to the network, such as a photo, it will be broken into pieces, hashed, and encrypted. The data is then randomly distributed across the network. Redundant copies of the data are created as well so that if someone storing your file turns off their computer, you will still have access to your data. And don’t worry, even with pieces of your data on other people’s computers, they won’t be able to read them. You can earn MadeSafeCoins by participating in storing data pieces from the network on your computer and thus earning a Proof of Resource.
  4. Storj: Storj aims to become a cloud storage platform that can’t be censored or monitored, or have downtime. Your files are encrypted, shredded into little pieces called 'shards', and stored in a decentralized network of computers around the globe. No one but you has a complete copy of your file, not even in an encrypted form.

Market 11 - Cloud computing

Obviously, renting computing power, one of the biggest emerging markets as of recent years, e.g. AWS and Digital Ocean, is also a service, which can be bought and managed via the blockchain.
  1. Golem: Allows easy use of Supercomputer in exchange for tokens. People worldwide can rent out their computers to the network and get paid for that service with Golem tokens.
  2. Elf: Allows easy use of Cloud computing in exchange for tokens.

Market 12 - Stablecoin

Last but not least, there are 2 stablecoins that have established themselves within the market. A stable coin is a coin that wants to be independent of the volatility of the crypto markets. This has worked out pretty well for Maker and DGD, accomplished through a carefully diversified currency fund and backing each token by 1g or real gold respectively. DO NOT CONFUSE DGD AND MAKER with their STABLE COINS DGX and DAI. DGD and MAKER are volatile, because they are the companies of DGX and DAI. DGX and DAI are the stable coins.
  1. DGD: Platform of the Stablecoin DGX. Every DGX coin is backed by 1g of gold and make use proof of asset consensus.
  2. Maker: Platform of the Stablecoin DAI that doesn't vary much in price through widespread and smart diversification of assets.
EDIT: Added a risk factor from 0 to 10. The baseline is 2 for any crypto. Significant scandals, mishaps, shady practices, questionable technology, increase the risk factor. Not having a product yet automatically means a risk factor of 6. Strong adoption and thus strong scrutiny or positive community lower the risk factor.
EDIT2: Added a subjective potential factor from 0 to 10, where its overall potential and a small or big market cap is factored in. Bitcoin with lots of potential only gets a 9, because of its massive market cap, because if Bitcoin goes 10x, smaller coins go 100x, PIVX gets a 10 for being as good as Monero while carrying a 10x smaller market cap, which would make PIVX go 100x if Monero goes 10x.
submitted by galan77 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Which are your top 5 coins out of the top100? An analysis.

I am putting together my investment portfolio for 2018 and made a complete summary of the current Top 100. Interestingly, I noticed that all coins can be categorized into 12 markets. Which markets do you think will play the biggest role in the coming year?
Here is a complete overview of all coins in an excel sheet including name, a full description, market, TPS, risk profile, time since launch (negative numbers mean that they are launching that many months in the future) and market cap. You can also sort by all of these fields of course. Coins written in bold are the strongest contenders within their market either due to having the best technology or having a small market cap and still excellent technology and potential. https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1s8PHcNvvjuy848q18py_CGcu8elRGQAUIf86EYh4QZo/edit#gid=0
The 12 markets are
  1. Currency 13 coins
  2. Platform 25 coins
  3. Ecosystem 9 coins
  4. Privacy 9 coins
  5. Currency Exchange Tool 8 coins
  6. Gaming & Gambling 4 coins
  7. Misc 15 coins
  8. Social Network 4 coins
  9. Fee Token 3 coins
  10. Decentralized Data Storage 4 coins
  11. Cloud Computing 2 coins
  12. Stable Coin 3 coins
Before we look at the individual markets, we need to take a look of the overall market and its biggest issue, scalability, first:
Cryptocurrencies aim to be a decentralized currency that can be used worldwide. Their goal is to replace dollar, Euro, Yen, all FIAT currencies globally. The coin that will achieve that will be worth several trillion dollars.
Bitcoin can only process 7 transactions per second (TPS) currently. In order to replace all FIAT, it would need to perform at least at VISA levels, which usually processes around 3,000 TPS, up to 25,000 TPS during peak times and a maximum of 64,000 TPS. That means that this cryptocurrency would need to be able to perform at least several thousand TPS. However, a ground breaking technology should not look at current technology to set a goal for its use, i.e. estimating the number of emails sent in 1990 based on the number of faxes sent wasn’t a good estimate.
For that reason, 10,000 TPS is the absolute baseline for a cryptocurrency that wants to replace FIAT. This brings me to IOTA, which wants to connect all 80 billion IoT devices that are expected to exist by 2025, which constantly communicate with each other, possibly creating 80 billion or more transactions per second. This is the benchmark that cryptocurrencies should be aiming for. Currently, 8 billion devices are connected to the Internet.
With its Lightning network recently launched, Bitcoin is realistically looking at 50,000 possible TPS soon. Other notable cryptocurrencies besides IOTA and Bitcoin are Nano with 7,000 TPS already tested, Dash with several billion TPS possible with Masternodes, Neo, LISK and RHOC with 100,000 TPS by 2020, Ripple with 50,000 TPS, Ethereum with 10,000 TPS with Sharding.
However, it needs to be said that scalability usually goes at the cost of decentralization and security. So, it needs to be seen, which of these technologies can prove themselves decentralized while maintaining high TPS.
Without further ado, here are the coins of the first market. Each market is sorted by market cap.

Market 1 - Currency:

  1. Bitcoin: 1st generation blockchain with currently bad scalability, though the implementation of the Lightning Network looks promising and could alleviate most scalability and high energy use concerns.
  2. Ripple: Centralized currency that might become very successful due to tight involvement with banks and cross-border payments for financial institutions; banks and companies like Western Union and Moneygram (who they are currently working with) as customers customers. However, it seems they are aiming for more decentralization now.https://ripple.com/dev-blog/decentralization-strategy-update/. Has high TPS due to Proof of Correctness algorithm.
  3. Bitcoin Cash: Bitcoin fork with the difference of having an 8 times bigger block size, making it 8 times more scalable than Bitcoin currently. Further block size increases are planned. Only significant difference is bigger block size while big blocks lead to further problems that don't seem to do well beyond a few thousand TPS. Opponents to a block size argue that increasing the block size limit is unimaginative, offers only temporary relief, and damages decentralization by increasing costs of participation. In order to preserve decentralization, system requirements to participate should be kept low. To understand this, consider an extreme example: very big blocks (1GB+) would require data center level resources to validate the blockchain. This would preclude all but the wealthiest individuals from participating.Community seems more open than Bitcoin's though.
  4. Litecoin : Little brother of Bitcoin. Bitcoin fork with different mining algorithm but not much else.Copies everything that Bitcoin does pretty much. Lack of real innovation.
  5. Dash: Dash (Digital Cash) is a fork of Bitcoin and focuses on user ease. It has very fast transactions within seconds, low fees and uses Proof of Service from Masternodes for consensus. They are currently building a system called Evolution which will allow users to send money using usernames and merchants will find it easy to integrate Dash using the API. You could say Dash is trying to be a PayPal of cryptocurrencies. Currently, cryptocurrencies must choose between decentralization, speed, scalability and can pick only 2. With Masternodes, Dash picked speed and scalability at some cost of decentralization, since with Masternodes the voting power is shifted towards Masternodes, which are run by Dash users who own the most Dash.
  6. IOTA: 3rd generation blockchain called Tangle, which has a high scalability, no fees and instant transactions. IOTA aims to be the connective layer between all 80 billion IOT devices that are expected to be connected to the Internet in 2025, possibly creating 80 billion transactions per second or 800 billion TPS, who knows. However, it needs to be seen if the Tangle can keep up with this scalability and iron out its security issues that have not yet been completely resolved.
  7. Nano: 3rd generation blockchain called Block Lattice with high scalability, no fees and instant transactions. Unlike IOTA, Nano only wants to be a payment processor and nothing else, for now at least. With Nano, every user has their own blockchain and has to perform a small amount of computing for each transaction, which makes Nano perform at 300 TPS with no problems and 7,000 TPS have also been tested successfully. Very promising 3rd gen technology and strong focus on only being the fastest currency without trying to be everything.
  8. Decred: As mining operations have grown, Bitcoin’s decision-making process has become more centralized, with the largest mining companies holding large amounts of power over the Bitcoin improvement process. Decred focuses heavily on decentralization with their PoW Pos hybrid governance system to become what Bitcoin was set out to be. They will soon implement the Lightning Network to scale up. While there do not seem to be more differences to Bitcoin besides the novel hybrid consensus algorithm, which Ethereum, Aeternity and Bitcoin Atom are also implementing, the welcoming and positive Decred community and professoinal team add another level of potential to the coin.
  9. Bitcoin Atom: Atomic Swaps and hybrid consenus. This looks like the only Bitcoin clone that actually is looking to innovate next to Bitcoin Cash.
  10. Dogecoin: Litecoin fork, fantastic community, though lagging behind a bit in technology.
  11. Bitcoin Gold: A bit better security than bitcoin through ASIC resistant algorithm, but that's it. Not that interesting.
  12. Digibyte: Digibyte's PoS blockchain is spread over a 100,000+ servers, phones, computers, and nodes across the globe, aiming for the ultimate level of decentralization. DigiByte’s adoption over the past four years has been slow. The DigiByte website offers a lot of great marketing copy and buzzwords. However, there’s not much technical information about what they have planned for the future. You could say Digibyte is like Bitcoin, but with shorter blocktimes and a multi-algorithm. However, that's not really a difference big enough to truly set themselves apart from Bitcoin, since these technologies could be implemented by any blockchain without much difficulty. Their decentralization is probably their strongest asset, however, this also change quickly if the currency takes off and big miners decide to go into Digibyte.
  13. Bitcoin Diamond Asic resistant Bitcoin and Copycat

Market 2 - Platform

Most of the cryptos here have smart contracts and allow dapps (Decentralized apps) to be build on their platform and to use their token as an exchange of value between dapp services.
  1. Ethereum: 2nd generation blockchain that allows the use of smart contracts. Bad scalability currently, though this concern could be alleviated by the soon to be implemented Lightning Network aka the Raiden Network, Plasma and its Sharding concept.
  2. EOS: Promising technology that wants to be able do everything, from smart contracts like Ethereum, scalability similar to Nano with 1000 tx/second + near instant transactions and zero fees, to also wanting to be a platform for dapps. However, EOS doesn't have a product yet and everything is just promises still. There are lots of red flags, e.g. having dumped $500 million Ether over the last 2 months and possibly bought back EOS to increase the size of their ICO, which has been going on for over a year and has raised several billion dollars. All in all, their market cap is way too high for that and not even having a product. However, Mainnet release is in 1 month, which could change everything.
  3. Cardano: Similar to Ethereum/EOS, however, only promises made with no delivery yet, highly overrated right now. Interesting concept though. Market cap way too high for not even having a product. Somewhat promising technology.
  4. VeChain: Singapore-based project that’s building a business enterprise platform and inventory tracking system. Examples are verifying genuine luxury goods and food supply chains. Has one of the strongest communities in the crypto world. Most hyped token of all, with merit though.
  5. Neo: Neo is a platform, similar to Eth, but more extensive, allowing dapps and smart contracts, but with a different smart contract gas system, consensus mechanism (PoS vs. dBfT), governance model, fixed vs unfixed supply, expensive contracts vs nearly free contracts, different ideologies for real world adoption. There are currently only 9 nodes, each of which are being run by a company/entity hand selected by the NEO council (most of which are located in china) and are under contract. This means that although the locations of the nodes may differ, ultimately the neo council can bring them down due to their legal contracts. In fact this has been done in the past when the neo council was moving 50 million neo that had been locked up. Also dbft (or neo's implmentation of it) has failed underload causing network outages during major icos. The first step in decentralization is that the NEO Counsel will select trusted nodes (Universities, business partners, etc.) and slowly become less centralized that way. The final step in decentralization will be allowing NEO holders to vote for new nodes, similar to a DPoS system (ARK/EOS/LISK). NEO has a regulation/government friendly ideology. Finally they are trying to work undewith the Chinese government in regards to regulations. If for some reason they wanted it shut down, they could just shut it down.
  6. Stellar:PoS system, similar goals as Ripple, but more of a platform than only a currency. 80% of Stellar are owned by Stellar.org still, making the currency centralized.
  7. Ethereum classic: Original Ethereum that decided not to fork after a hack. The Ethereum that we know is its fork. Uninteresing, because it has a lot of less resources than Ethereum now and a lot less community support.
  8. Ziliqa: Zilliqa is building a new way of sharding. 2400 tpx already tested, 10,000 tps soon possible by being linearly scalable with the number of nodes. That means, the more nodes, the faster the network gets. They are looking at implementing privacy as well.
  9. QTUM: Enables Smart contracts on the Bitcoin blockchain. Useful.
  10. Icon: Korean ethereum. Decentralized application platform that's building communities in partnership with banks, insurance providers, hospitals, and universities. Focused on ID verification and payments.
  11. LISK: Lisk's difference to other BaaS is that side chains are independent to the main chain and have to have their own nodes. Similar to neo whole allows dapps to deploy their blockchain to. Like most cryptocurrencies, Lisk is currently somewhat centralized with a small group of members owning more than 50% of the delegated positions. Lisk plans to change the consensus algorithm for that reason in the near future.
  12. Rchain: Similar to Ethereum with smart contract, though much more scalable at an expected 40,000 TPS and possible 100,000 TPS. Not launched yet. No product launched yet, though promising technology. Not overvalued, probably at the right price right now.
  13. ARDR: Similar to Lisk. Ardor is a public blockchain platform that will allow people to utilize the blockchain technology of Nxt through the use of child chains. A child chain, which is a ‘light’ blockchain that can be customized to a certain extent, is designed to allow easy self-deploy for your own blockchain. Nxt claims that users will "not need to worry" about security, as that part is now handled by the main chain (Ardor). This is the chief innovation of Ardor. Ardor was evolved from NXT by the same company. NEM started as a NXT clone.
  14. Ontology: Similar to Neo. Interesting coin
  15. Bytom: Bytom is an interactive protocol of multiple byte assets. Heterogeneous byte-assets (indigenous digital currency, digital assets) that operate in different forms on the Bytom Blockchain and atomic assets (warrants, securities, dividends, bonds, intelligence information, forecasting information and other information that exist in the physical world) can be registered, exchanged, gambled and engaged in other more complicated and contract-based interoperations via Bytom.
  16. Nxt: Similar to Lisk
  17. Aeternity: We’ve seen recently, that it’s difficult to scale the execution of smart contracts on the blockchain. Crypto Kitties is a great example. Something as simple as creating and trading unique assets on Ethereum bogged the network down when transaction volume soared. Ethereum and Zilliqa address this problem with Sharding. Aeternity focuses on increasing the scalability of smart contracts and dapps by moving smart contracts off-chain. Instead of running on the blockchain, smart contracts on Aeternity run in private state channels between the parties involved in the contracts. State channels are lines of communication between parties in a smart contract. They don’t touch the blockchain unless they need to for adjudication or transfer of value. Because they’re off-chain, state channel contracts can operate much more efficiently. An important aspect of smart contract and dapp development is access to outside data sources. This could mean checking the weather in London, score of a football game, or price of gold. Oracles provide access to data hosted outside the blockchain. In many blockchain projects, oracles represent a security risk and potential point of failure, since they tend to be singular, centralized data streams. Aeternity proposes decentralizing oracles with their oracle machine. Doing so would make outside data immutable and unchangeable once it reaches Aeternity’s blockchain. Aeternity’s network runs on on a hybrid of proof of work and proof of stake. Founded by a long-time crypto-enthusiast and early colleague of Vitalik Buterin, Yanislav Malahov. Promising concept though not product yet
  18. Stratis: Different to LISK, Stratis will allow businesses and organizations to create their own blockchain according to their own needs, but secured on the parent Stratis chain. Stratis’s simple interface will allow organizations to quickly and easily deploy and/or test blockchain functionality of the Ethereum, BitShares, BitCoin, Lisk and Stratis environements.
  19. Status: Status provides access to all of Ethereum’s decentralized applications (dapps) through an app on your smartphone. It opens the door to mass adoption of Ethereum dapps by targeting the fastest growing computer segment in the world – smartphone users.
  20. Ark: Fork of Lisk that focuses on a smaller feature set. Ark wallets can only vote for one delegate at a time which forces delegates to compete against each other and makes cartel formations incredibly hard, if not impossible.
  21. Neblio: Similar to Neo, but at a 30x smaller market cap.
  22. NEM: Is similar to Neo. However, it has no marketing team, very high market cap for little clarilty what they do.
  23. Bancor: Bancor is a Decentralized Liquidity Network that allows you to hold any Ethereum token and convert it to any other token in the network, with no counter party, at an automatically calculated price, using a simple web wallet.
  24. Dragonchain: The Purpose of DragonChain is to help companies quickly and easily incorporate blockchain into their business applications. Many companies might be interested in making this transition because of the benefits associated with serving clients over a blockchain – increased efficiency and security for transactions, a reduction of costs from eliminating potential fraud and scams, etc.
  25. Skycoin: Transactions with zero fees that take apparently two seconds, unlimited transaction rate, no need for miners and block rewards, low power usage, all of the usual cryptocurrency technical vulnerabilities fixed, a consensus mechanism superior to anything that exists, resistant to all conceivable threats (government censorship, community infighting, cybenucleaconventional warfare, etc). Skycoin has their own consensus algorithm known as Obelisk written and published academically by an early developer of Ethereum. Obelisk is a non-energy intensive consensus algorithm based on a concept called ‘web of trust dynamics’ which is completely different to PoW, PoS, and their derivatives. Skywire, the flagship application of Skycoin, has the ambitious goal of decentralizing the internet at the hardware level and is about to begin the testnet in April. However, this is just one of the many facets of the Skycoin ecosystem. Skywire will not only provide decentralized bandwidth but also storage and computation, completing the holy trinity of commodities essential for the new internet. Skycion a smear campaign launched against it, though they seem legit and reliable. Thus, they are probably undervalued.

Market 3 - Ecosystem

The 3rd market with 11 coins is comprised of ecosystem coins, which aim to strengthen the ease of use within the crypto space through decentralized exchanges, open standards for apps and more
  1. Nebulas: Similar to how Google indexes webpages Nebulas will index blockchain projects, smart contracts & data using the Nebulas rank algorithm that sifts & sorts the data. Developers rewarded NAS to develop & deploy on NAS chain. Nebulas calls this developer incentive protocol – basically rewards are issued based on how often dapp/contract etc. is used, the more the better the rewards and Proof of devotion. Works like DPoS except the best, most economically incentivised developers (Bookkeeppers) get the forging spots. Ensuring brains stay with the project (Cross between PoI & PoS). 2,400 TPS+, DAG used to solve the inter-transaction dependencies in the PEE (Parallel Execution Environment) feature, first crypto Wallet that supports the Lightening Network.
  2. Waves: Decentralized exchange and crowdfunding platform. Let’s companies and projects to issue and manage their own digital coin tokens to raise money.
  3. Salt: Leveraging blockchain assets to secure cash loands. Plans to offer cash loans in traditional currencies, backed by your cryptocurrency assets. Allows lenders worldwide to skip credit checks for easier access to affordable loans.
  4. CHAINLINK: ChainLink is a decentralized oracle service, the first of its kind. Oracles are defined as an ‘agent’ that finds and verifies real-world occurrences and submits this information to a blockchain to be used in smart contracts.With ChainLink, smart contract users can use the network’s oracles to retrieve data from off-chain application program interfaces (APIs), data pools, and other resources and integrate them into the blockchain and smart contracts. Basically, ChainLink takes information that is external to blockchain applications and puts it on-chain. The difference to Aeternity is that Chainlink deploys the smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain while Aeternity has its own chain.
  5. WTC: Combines blockchain with IoT to create a management system for supply chains Interesting
  6. Ethos unifyies all cryptos. Ethos is building a multi-cryptocurrency phone wallet. The team is also building an investment diversification tool and a social network
  7. Komodo: The Komodo blockchain platform uses Komodo’s open-source cryptocurrency for doing transparent, anonymous, private, and fungible transactions. They are then made ultra-secure using Bitcoin’s blockchain via a Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW) protocol and decentralized crowdfunding (ICO) platform to remove middlemen from project funding. Offers services for startups to create and manage their own Blockchains.
  8. Aion: Today, there are hundreds of blockchains. In the coming years, with widespread adoption by mainstream business and government, these will be thousands or millions. Blockchains don’t talk to each other at all right now, they are like the PCs of the 1980s. The Aion network is able to support custom blockchain architectures while still allowing for cross-chain interoperability by enabling users to exchange data between any Aion-compliant blockchains by making use of an interchain framework that allows for messages to be relayed between blockchains in a completely trust-free manner.
  9. Tenx: Raised 80 million, offers cryptocurrency-linked credit cards that let you spend virtual money in real life. Developing a series of payment platforms to make spending cryptocurrency easier.

Market 4 - Privacy

The 4th market are privacy coins. As you might know, Bitcoin is not anonymous. If the IRS or any other party asks an exchange who is the identity behind a specific Bitcoin address, they know who you are and can track back almost all of the Bitcoin transactions you have ever made and all your account balances. Privacy coins aim to prevent exactly that through address fungability, which changes addresses constantly, IP obfuscation and more. There are 2 types of privacy coins, one with completely privacy and one with optional privacy. Optional Privacy coins like Dash and Nav have the advantage of more user friendliness over completely privacy coins such as Monero and Enigma.
  1. Monero: Currently most popular privacy coin, though with a very high market cap. Since their privacy is all on chain, all prior transactions would be deanonymized if their protocol is ever cracked. This requires a quantum computing attack though. PIVX is better in that regard.
  2. Zcash: A decentralized and open-source cryptocurrency that hide the sender, recipient, and value of transactions. Offers users the option to make transactions public later for auditing. Decent privacy coin, though no default privacy
  3. Verge: Calls itself privacy coin without providing private transactions, multiple problems over the last weeks has a toxic community, and way too much hype for what they have.
  4. Bytecoin: First privacy-focused cryptocurrency with anonymous transactions. Bytecoin’s code was later adapted to create Monero, the more well-known anonymous cryptocurrency. Has several scam accusations, 80% pre-mine, bad devs, bad tech
  5. Bitcoin Private: A merge fork of Bitcoin and Zclassic with Zclassic being a fork of Zcash with the difference of a lack of a founders fee required to mine a valid block. This promotes a fair distribution, preventing centralized coin ownership and control. Bitcoin private offers the optional ability to keep the sender, receiver, and amount private in a given transaction. However, this is already offered by several good privacy coins (Monero, PIVX) and Bitcoin private doesn't offer much more beyond this.
  6. PIVX: As a fork of Dash, PIVX uses an advanced implementation of the Zerocoin protocol to provide it’s privacy. This is a form of zeroknowledge proofs, which allow users to spend ‘Zerocoins’ that have no link back to them. Unlike Zcash u have denominations in PIVX, so they can’t track users by their payment amount being equal to the amount of ‘minted’ coins, because everyone uses the same denominations. PIVX is also implementing Bulletproofs, just like Monero, and this will take care of arguably the biggest weakness of zeroknowledge protocols: the trusted setup.
  7. Zcoin: PoW cryptocurrency. Private financial transactions, enabled by the Zerocoin Protocol. Zcoin is the first full implementation of the Zerocoin Protocol, which allows users to have complete privacy via Zero-Knowledge cryptographic proofs.
  8. Enigma: Monero is to Bitcoin what enigma is to Ethereum. Enigma is for making the data used in smart contracts private. More of a platform for dapps than a currency like Monero. Very promising.
  9. Navcoin: Like bitcoin but with added privacy and pos and 1,170 tps, but only because of very short 30 second block times. Though, privacy is optional, but aims to be more user friendly than Monero. However, doesn't really decide if it wants to be a privacy coin or not. Same as Zcash.Strong technology, non-shady team.

Market 5 - Currency Exchange Tool

Due to the sheer number of different cryptocurrencies, exchanging one currency for the other it still cumbersome. Further, merchants don’t want to deal with overcluttered options of accepting cryptocurrencies. This is where exchange tool like Req come in, which allow easy and simple exchange of currencies.
  1. Cryptonex: Fiat and currency exchange between various blockchain services, similar to REQ.
  2. QASH: Qash is used to fuel its liquid platform which will be an exchange that will distribute their liquidity pool. Its product, the Worldbook is a multi-exchange order book that matches crypto to crypto, and crypto to fiat and the reverse across all currencies. E.g., someone is selling Bitcoin is USD on exchange1 not owned by Quoine and someone is buying Bitcoin in EURO on exchange 2 not owned by Quoine. They turned it on to test it a few months ago for an hour or so and their exchange was the top exchange in the world by 4x volume for the day because all Worldbook trades ran through it. Binance wants BNB to be used on their one exchange. Qash wants their QASH token embedded in all of their partners.
  3. Kyber: network Exchange between cryptocurrencies, similar to REQ. Features automatic coin conversions for payments. Also offers payment tools for developers and a cryptocurrency wallet.
  4. Achain: Building a boundless blockchain world like Req .
  5. Centrality: Centrality is a decentralized market place for dapps that are all connected together on a blockchain-powered system. Centrality aims to allow businesses to work together using blockchain technology. With Centrality, startups can collaborate through shared acquisition of customers, data, merchants, and content. That shared acquisition occurs across the Centrality blockchain, which hosts a number of decentralized apps called Scenes. Companies can use CENTRA tokens to purchase Scenes for their app, then leverage the power of the Centrality ecosystem to quickly scale. Some of Centrality's top dapps are, Skoot, a travel experience marketplace that consists of a virtual companion designed for free independent travelers and inbound visitors, Belong, a marketplace and an employee engagement platform that seems at helping business provide rewards for employees, Merge, a smart travel app that acts as a time management system, Ushare, a transports application that works across rental cars, public transport, taxi services, electric bikes and more. All of these dapps are able to communicate with each other and exchange data through Centrality.
  6. Bitshares: Exchange between cryptocurrencies. Noteworthy are the 1.5 second average block times and throughput potential of 100,000 transactions per second with currently 2,400 TPS having been proven. However, Bitshares had several Scam accusations in the past.
  7. Loopring: A protocol that will enable higher liquidity between exchanges and personal wallets by pooling all orders sent to its network and fill these orders through the order books of multiple exchanges. When using Loopring, traders never have to deposit funds into an exchange to begin trading. Even with decentralized exchanges like Ether Delta, IDex, or Bitshares, you’d have to deposit your funds onto the platform, usually via an Ethereum smart contract. But with Loopring, funds always remain in user wallets and are never locked by orders. This gives you complete autonomy over your funds while trading, allowing you to cancel, trim, or increase an order before it is executed.
  8. ZRX: Open standard for dapps. Open, permissionless protocol allowing for ERC20 tokens to be traded on the Ethereum blockchain. In 0x protocol, orders are transported off-chain, massively reducing gas costs and eliminating blockchain bloat. Relayers help broadcast orders and collect a fee each time they facilitate a trade. Anyone can build a relayer.

Market 6 - Gaming

With an industry size of $108B worldwide, Gaming is one of the largest markets in the world. For sure, cryptocurrencies will want to have a share of that pie.
  1. Storm: Mobile game currency on a platform with 9 million players.
  2. Fun: A platform for casino operators to host trustless, provably-fair gambling through the use of smart contracts, as well as creating their own implementation of state channels for scalability.
  3. Electroneum: Mobile game currency They have lots of technical problems, such as several 51% attacks
  4. Wax: Marketplace to trade in-game items

Market 7 - Misc

There are various markets being tapped right now. They are all summed up under misc.
  1. OMG: Omise is designed to enable financial services for people without bank accounts. It works worldwide and with both traditional money and cryptocurrencies.
  2. Power ledger: Australian blockchain-based cryptocurrency and energy trading platform that allows for decentralized selling and buying of renewable energy. Unique market and rather untapped market in the crypto space.
  3. Populous: Populous is a platform that connects business owners and invoice buyers without middlemen. Furthermore, it is a peer-to-peer (P2P) platform that uses blockchain to provide small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) a more efficient way to participate in invoice financing. Businesses can sell their outstanding invoices at a discount to quickly free up some cash. Invoice sellers get cash flow to fund their business and invoice buyers earn interest.
  4. Monacoin: The first Japanese cryptocurrency. Focused on micro-transactions and based on a popular internet meme of a type-written cat. This makes it similar to Dogecoin. Very niche, tiny market.
  5. Revain: Legitimizing reviews via the blockchain. Interesting concept, though market not as big.
  6. Augur: Platform to forecast and make wagers on the outcome of real-world events (AKA decentralized predictions). Uses predictions for a “wisdom of the crowd” search engine. Not launched yet.
  7. Substratum: Revolutionzing hosting industry via per request billing as a decentralized internet hosting system. Uses a global network of private computers to create the free and open internet of the future. Participants earn cryptocurrency. Interesting concept.
  8. Veritaseum: Is supposed to be a peer to peer gateway, though it looks like very much like a scam.
  9. TRON: Tronix is looking to capitalize on ownership of internet data to content creators. However, they plagiarized their white paper, which is a no go. They apologized, so it needs to be seen how they will conduct themselves in the future. Extremely high market cap for not having a product, nor proof of concept.
  10. Syscoin: A cryptocurrency with a decentralized marketplace that lets people buy and sell products directly without third parties. Trying to remove middlemen like eBay and Amazon.
  11. Hshare: Most likely scam because of no code changes, most likely pump and dump scheme, dead community.
  12. BAT: An Ethereum-based token that can be exchanged between content creators, users, and advertisers. Decentralized ad-network that pays based on engagement and attention.
  13. Dent: Decentralizeed exchange of mobile data, enabling mobile data to be marketed, purchased or distributed, so that users can quickly buy or sell data from any user to another one.
  14. Ncash: End to end encrypted Identification system for retailers to better serve their customers .
  15. Factom Secure record-keeping system that allows companies to store their data directly on the Blockchain. The goal is to make records more transparent and trustworthy .

Market 8 - Social network

Web 2.0 is still going strong and Web 3.0 is not going to ignore it. There are several gaming tokens already out there and a few with decent traction already, such as Steem, which is Reddit with voting through money is a very interesting one.
  1. Mithril: As users create content via social media, they will be rewarded for their contribution, the better the contribution, the more they will earn
  2. Steem: Like Reddit, but voting with money. Already launched product and Alexa rank 1,000 Thumbs up.
  3. Rdd: Reddcoin makes the process of sending and receiving money fun and rewarding for everyone. Reddcoin is dedicated to one thing – tipping on social networks as a way to bring cryptocurrency awareness and experience to the general public.
  4. Kin: Token for the platform Kik. Kik has a massive user base of 400 million people. Replacing paying with FIAT with paying with KIN might get this token to mass adoption very quickly.

Market 9 - Fee token

Popular exchanges realized that they can make a few billion dollars more by launching their own token. Owning these tokens gives you a reduction of trading fees. Very handy and BNB (Binance Coin) has been one of the most resilient tokens, which have withstood most market drops over the last weeks and was among the very few coins that could show growth.
  1. BNB: Fee token for Binance
  2. Gas: Not a Fee token for an exchange, but it is a dividend paid out on Neo and a currency that can be used to purchase services for dapps.
  3. Kucoin: Fee token for Kucoin

Market 10 - Decentralized Data Storage

Currently, data storage happens with large companies or data centers that are prone to failure or losing data. Decentralized data storage makes loss of data almost impossible by distributing your files to numerous clients that hold tiny pieces of your data. Remember Torrents? Torrents use a peer-to-peer network. It is similar to that. Many users maintain copies of the same file, when someone wants a copy of that file, they send a request to the peer-to-peer network., users who have the file, known as seeds, send fragments of the file to the requester. The requester receives many fragments from many different seeds, and the torrent software recompiles these fragments to form the original file.
  1. Gbyte: Byteball data is stored and ordered using directed acyclic graph (DAG) rather than blockchain. This allows all users to secure each other's data by referencing earlier data units created by other users, and also removes scalability limits common for blockchains, such as blocksize issue.
  2. Siacoin: Siacoin is decentralized storage platform. Distributes encrypted files to thousands of private users who get paid for renting out their disk space. Anybody with siacoins can rent storage from hosts on Sia. This is accomplish via "smart" storage contracts stored on the Sia blockchain. The smart contract provides a payment to the host only after the host has kept the file for a given amount of time. If the host loses the file, the host does not get paid.
  3. Maidsafecoin: MaidSafe stands for Massive Array of Internet Disks, Secure Access for Everyone.Instead of working with data centers and servers that are common today and are vulnerable to data theft and monitoring, You can think of SAFE as a crowd-sourced internet. It’s an autonomous network that automatically sets prices and distributes data and rents out hard drive disk space with a Blockchain-based storage solutions.When you upload a file to the network, such as a photo, it will be broken into pieces, hashed, and encrypted. Then, redundant copies of the data are created as well so that if someone storing your file turns off their computer, you will still have access to your data. And don’t worry, even with pieces of your data on other people’s computers, they won’t be able to read them. You can earn MadeSafeCoins by participating in storing data pieces from the network on your computer and thus earning a Proof of Resource.
  4. Storj: Storj aims to become a cloud storage platform that can’t be censored or monitored, or have downtime. Your files are encrypted, shredded into little pieces called 'shards', and stored in a decentralized network of computers around the globe. No one but you has a complete copy of your file, not even in an encrypted form.

Market 11 - Cloud computing

Obviously, renting computing power, one of the biggest emerging markets as of recent years, e.g. AWS and Digital Ocean, is also a service, which can be bought and managed via the blockchain.
  1. Golem: Allows easy use of Supercomputer in exchange for tokens. People worldwide can rent out their computers to the network and get paid for that service with Golem tokens.
  2. Elf: Allows easy use of Cloud computing in exchange for tokens.

Market 12 - Stablecoin

Last but not least, there are 2 stablecoins that have established themselves within the market. A stable coin is a coin that wants to be independent of the volatility of the crypto markets. This has worked out pretty well for Maker and DGD, accomplished through a carefully diversified currency fund and backing each token by 1g or real gold respectively. DO NOT CONFUSE DGD AND MAKER with their STABLE COINS DGX and DAI. DGD and MAKER are volatile, because they are the companies of DGX and DAI. DGX and DAI are the stable coins.
  1. DGD: Platform of the Stablecoin DGX. Every DGX coin is backed by 1g of gold and make use proof of asset consensus.
  2. Maker: Platform of the Stablecoin DAI that doesn't vary much in price through widespread and smart diversification of assets.
  3. USDT: is no cryptocurrency really, but a replacement for dollar for trading After months of asking for proof of dollar backing, still no response from Tether.
EDIT: Added a risk factor from 0 to 10. Significant scandals, mishaps, shady practices, questionable technology, increase the risk factor. Not having a product yet automatically means a risk factor of 6. Strong adoption and thus strong scrutiny or positive community lower the risk factor.
EDIT2: Added a subjective potential factor from 0 to 10, where its overall potential and a small or big market cap is factored in. Bitcoin with lots of potential only gets a 9, because of its massive market cap, because if Bitcoin goes 10x, smaller coins go 100x.
submitted by galan77 to ethtrader [link] [comments]

Bitcoin and Energy Consumption - Rebuttals

Andreas Antonopolous was featured on a CaSE podcast. At around -00:15:00, he provides a great response about energy consumption in Bitcoin.
Summarized:
-Energy is being wasted
Clearly, Bitcoin is useful to some people. Judgements about whether or not something is wasted is best left to those using it. We don't end up with a good society if we start deciding for other people what is useful and what is not.
To people who value censorship-resistance, neutrality, global access, completely decentralised system of currency with no geopolitical attachments, Bitcoin is a very useful application. Some would argue it is the most useful application in the 21st century.
You can't do the security of Bitcoin without the investment in energy. To those who say you can, they are saying that you can get something of value out of nothing. There's a reason why the security of reason costs that much in terms of energy; if you do it for less, it's less secure. If it's less secure, you won't have a valuable network.
The energy in Bitcoin is not wasted - it's used to make the network secure without central authority. No one has demonstrated at scale an alternative.
-What about Proof of Stake?
There is a lot of complexity in using an intrinsic currency as stake for the security of the same currency. The game theory gets very complicated. Proof of Work is straightforward: you spend resources on energy in order to secure the virtual asset. If you decide to fuck it up, not only do you lose the value of the virtual asset, but you also spent money on energy that you are not going to get back. This creates a level of grounding.
This is the primary basis on which Bitcoin achieves immutability; the idea that it is as computationally expensive to re-write the ledger for 3 days as the amount of energy you spent to write the ledger the first time for 3 days. It is one of the security guarantees that Bitcoin has - in order to re-write the ledger, you have to expend the energy again, but you receive the reward once. This makes it very very expensive to re-write even small stretches of the ledger. We do not know of a better basis for immutability that doesn't use energy, and I would challenge anyone who claims that there is.
-The Nirvana fallacy - comparing Bitcoin to something perfect
If this world produced all energy from renewable resources, and all energy is used for useful things, then perhaps we may look at Bitcoin and ask whether or not the value of Bitcoin is commensurate to the energy we are using. None of the journalists did even a cursory examination of what energy is being used for today.
Let me give you just 3 examples: Bitcoin's energy use is one hundreth of the energy used in mining gold. Gold is integral to the monetary system that Bitcoin is directly trying to replace. There are also environmental costs of mining gold - from sulphuric acid leeching into rivers, denuding hills, destroying mountains, etc. A tiny fraction is being used for industrial use, the vast majority of gold is being held as store of value.
Let's take a look at things like Christmas lights. The entire electricity use of Bitcoin in a year pales in comparison to the 1 week of electricity being used to power Christmas lights in the US alone. There are additional effects such as light pollution, and the majority does not come from renewable resources. You can argue about the pointlessness of such tradition.
More practically, every charging device with a step-down converter sits plugged in and coverts electricity to heat. The estimated power this consumes is 2 orders of magnitudes greater than what Bitcoin consumes. This is a worldwide phenomenon which is an enormous drain of energy. Cherry on top: the world's largest polluters and energy spenders are military; the main purpose they serve is to kill people.
We haven't even discussed the amount of energy required to support the existing banking system.
-Journalistic dishonesty and sensationalism
Spare me the righteous indignation of the environmental impact and waste of energy of cryptocurrencies - it is unscientific and completely hypocritical. All of the journalistic analysis goes like this: if it takes X kilowatts to conduct 1 transaction, and we took it to world scale, how much energy would that cost? They disregard that the energy used is completely unrelated to the # of transactions. The equivalent flawed thinking would be, "if this pregnant lady's belly is THIS large at 3 months, then in 5 years, it will be as big as this entire room." That is the exact scientific value of extrapolating something on a variable that is not dependent.
-How are you sure of your numbers?
We can estimate the lower bound of energy consumption, and say that it is unlikely that the real number is twice as much as the lower bound. The energy requirement to do a hash is a fundamental thermodynamic law. You're flipping bits, and they take a certain amount of energy to flip. You know the computational energy efficiency of 16nm ASIC-based chips. If you assume the network operates on this (which is incorrect, but again, lower bound estimate), and we know exactly how many hashes/sec are being calculated, because that's recorded on the blockchain, then we can calculate exactly how many joules of energy it takes. If you assume 50% of miners have 1 generation of miners behind (unlikely, because miners require optimisation), then it is at most 1.5x the lower bound of energy consumption.
It is easy to estimate the amount of energy being used in Bitcoin, which makes it an easy target. When you use your VISA card, you do not see the 600,000 employees who commute to work using gasoline-burning cars, the 26-story buildings which are lit 24 hours a day, data centers which are doing fraud prevention and analytics, as well as selling data to intelligence agencies and advertisers. All of this costs a lot of money and energy, and arguably just as "wasteful," but it's a hidden cost.
submitted by lobt to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is a digital asset

Blockchain

Main article: Blockchain
The validity of each cryptocurrency's coins is provided by a blockchain. A blockchain is a continuously growing list of records), called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.[23][26] Each block typically contains a hash pointer as a link to a previous block,[26] a timestamp and transaction data.[27] By design, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. It is "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way".[28] For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority.
Blockchains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain.[29] Blockchains solve the double-spendingproblem without the need of a trusted authority or central server), assuming no 51% attack (that has worked against several cryptocurrencies).

Timestamping

Cryptocurrencies use various timestamping schemes to "prove" the validity of transactions added to the blockchain ledger without the need for a trusted third party.
The first timestamping scheme invented was the proof-of-work scheme. The most widely used proof-of-work schemes are based on SHA-256 and scrypt.[16]
Some other hashing algorithms that are used for proof-of-work include CryptoNight, Blake), SHA-3, and X11#X11).
The proof-of-stake is a method of securing a cryptocurrency network and achieving distributed consensus through requesting users to show ownership of a certain amount of currency. It is different from proof-of-work systems that run difficult hashing algorithms to validate electronic transactions. The scheme is largely dependent on the coin, and there's currently no standard form of it. Some cryptocurrencies use a combined proof-of-work/proof-of-stake scheme.[16]

Mining

📷Hashcoin mine
In cryptocurrency networks, mining is a validation of transactions. For this effort, successful miners obtain new cryptocurrency as a reward. The reward decreases transaction fees by creating a complementary incentive to contribute to the processing power of the network. The rate of generating hashes, which validate any transaction, has been increased by the use of specialized machines such as FPGAs and ASICs running complex hashing algorithms like SHA-256 and Scrypt.[30] This arms race for cheaper-yet-efficient machines has been on since the day the first cryptocurrency, bitcoin, was introduced in 2009.[30] With more people venturing into the world of virtual currency, generating hashes for this validation has become far more complex over the years, with miners having to invest large sums of money on employing multiple high performance ASICs. Thus the value of the currency obtained for finding a hash often does not justify the amount of money spent on setting up the machines, the cooling facilities to overcome the enormous amount of heat they produce, and the electricity required to run them.[30][31]
Some miners pool resources, sharing their processing power over a network to split the reward equally, according to the amount of work they contributed to the probability of finding a block). A "share" is awarded to members of the mining pool who present a valid partial proof-of-work.
As of February 2018, the Chinese Government halted trading of virtual currency, banned initial coin offerings and shut down mining. Some Chinese miners have since relocated to Canada.[32] One company is operating data centers for mining operations at Canadian oil and gas field sites, due to low gas prices.[33] In June 2018, Hydro Quebec proposed to the provincial government to allocate 500 MW to crypto companies for mining.[34] According to a February 2018 report from Fortune,[35] Iceland has become a haven for cryptocurrency miners in part because of its cheap electricity. Prices are contained because nearly all of the country's energy comes from renewable sources, prompting more mining companies to consider opening operations in Iceland.[citation needed]
In March 2018, a town in Upstate New York put an 18-month moratorium on all cryptocurrency mining in an effort to preserve natural resources and the "character and direction" of the city.[36]

GPU price rise

An increase in cryptocurrency mining increased the demand of graphics cards (GPU) in 2017.[37] Popular favorites of cryptocurrency miners such as Nvidia's GTX 1060 and GTX 1070 graphics cards, as well as AMD's RX 570 and RX 580 GPUs, doubled or tripled in price – or were out of stock.[38] A GTX 1070 Ti which was released at a price of $450 sold for as much as $1100. Another popular card GTX 1060's 6 GB model was released at an MSRP of $250, sold for almost $500. RX 570 and RX 580 cards from AMD were out of stock for almost a year. Miners regularly buy up the entire stock of new GPU's as soon as they are available.[39]
Nvidia has asked retailers to do what they can when it comes to selling GPUs to gamers instead of miners. "Gamers come first for Nvidia," said Boris Böhles, PR manager for Nvidia in the German region.[40]

Wallets

📷An example paper printable bitcoin wallet consisting of one bitcoin address for receiving and the corresponding private key for spendingMain article: Cryptocurrency wallet
A cryptocurrency wallet stores the public and private "keys" or "addresses" which can be used to receive or spend the cryptocurrency. With the private key, it is possible to write in the public ledger, effectively spending the associated cryptocurrency. With the public key, it is possible for others to send currency to the wallet.

Anonymity

Bitcoin is pseudonymous rather than anonymous in that the cryptocurrency within a wallet is not tied to people, but rather to one or more specific keys (or "addresses").[41] Thereby, bitcoin owners are not identifiable, but all transactions are publicly available in the blockchain. Still, cryptocurrency exchanges are often required by law to collect the personal information of their users.
Additions such as Zerocoin, Zerocash and CryptoNote have been suggested, which would allow for additional anonymity and fungibility.[42][43]
submitted by TheResearcher012 to GreatLifePostsGoTeam [link] [comments]

What is Dago Mining?

Green energy for bitcoins, ethereum, and other cryptomonetes mining. Dago Mining has one initial cost and zero cost on consumption. The cost of the energy component gives profitability to mining. We create our own green renewable energy power plant and we will not have any future energy cost increase. There is no cost per Kw schedule, only a small annual maintenance price (0.01 $ per Kw), with a 20-year warranty on plant's components.
About Dago Mining When cryptomining was still in its infancy, it was well distributed among a couple of thousand private miners, governed by transparent rules and not harmful to the world environment because the energy requirements were microscopic. During last years, all this has changed: Dutch bitcoin analyst Alex de Vries, who operates a Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index on the website Digiconomist, has produced estimates of growth of energy consumption and they are alarming. If bitcoin miners are using the most efficient machines possible, the lowest amount of electricity they could possibly be using is 39 terawatt hours, de Vries said in an interview. That's about as much as the entire country of Slovenia. De Vries said less conservative estimates make it entirely possible that bitcoin is using as much energy as Ireland, which consumes about twice as much as Slovenia, or about 1 percent of the U.S. total.
The problem is getting worse, said de Vries, who estimated the annual amount of energy consumed by bitcoin rose by a fifth in the final weeks of 2017. Even worse, the concentration of mining power in the hands of a couple of large corporations is distorting the formerly democratic decision- making process in these networks: changes in protocols and hard forks are in danger of being influenced by the economic interests of a few.
DAGO mining has designed a mining system with three technologies all together: a high efficiency photovoltaic system that uses solar concentration panels, combined with an innovative energy storage system in salt water batteries that will bring the farm to be self-sufficient in terms of energy in 12- 18 months from the start. The progressive construction and assembly of the hardware of mining uses high performance GPU (not only Graphics Cards) and ASIC Chip already on the market. Everything is cooled by “Immersion Cooling” in order to exploit the possibility of overclock without losing stability and durability. Using the dynamics of exponential growth for both, we promote climate preservation and the welfare of our token holders. It is the physical incarnation of the blockchain spirit: a robust and decentralized system that can withstand disruptions in government policies, price structuresand the energy supply.
RECOMMENDED EXCHANGE LIST
Binance
Kucoin
Bit-z
Bibox
Coinegg
Huobi
SECURE WALLETS
Ledgerwallet
Trezor
Ellipal
submitted by icoinformation2021 to DagoMining [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Mining: Everything you need to know

Bitcoin mining is a term that everyone in the cryptocurrency and even many outsiders are familiar with. This is a process performed by high-powered computers (also known as nodes), which solve complicated computational math problems.
While distinct, there are certain similarities between bitcoin mining and actual mining for precious metals such as gold, for example. Both processes are carried out with the intention to earn a reward.
Furthermore, bitcoins actually exist in the bitcoin protocol but they haven’t been brought out yet – just as gold exists in the ground but it hasn’t been mined yet.
But the aim of bitcoin mining is, however, twofold. For once, when the above-mentioned high-powered computer or any other type of mining hardware, for that matter, successfully solves the complex math problem on the network of Bitcoin, they produce a new bitcoin.
On the other hand, by solving the computational math problems, bitcoin miners are actually making the payment network a secure through the proof-of-work consensus algorithm.

WHY IS BITCOIN MINING NECESSARY?

In order to break down bitcoin mining, there are a few important considerations that need to be taken into account.
Consumers tend to trust different types of printed fiat currencies because they are backed by central banks. In the US, for instance, this is the Federal Reserve. This is even true for digital payments made with fiat currencies.
Bitcoin, however, is not regulated by any central authority. It can be said that it is ‘backed’ by the computing power, which secures the network. This vast network of computers and mining hardware records transactions and make sure that they are accurate.
Unlike central authorities, however, bitcoin miners are spread throughout the entire world and record the transactional information on a public ledger available to anyone. This ledger can be viewed using a block explorer and there are many different websites that provide this service.
In other words, bitcoin mining is necessary for two different reasons – first, it is needed to create new bitcoin and second, it’s needed to confirm the transactional information. So, in theory, if you don’t want to buy Bitcoin, you can earn it through mining. Whether or not that’s efficient for you as an individual miner, however, is a different story.

HOW DOES BITCOIN MINING WORK?

In order for a bitcoin miner to get block rewards, there are two conditions which need to be met. First, the miner needs to confirm a certain amount of transactions and second, which is the trickiest part, solve a complex computational math problem.
Put simply, if that’s at all possible, each miner is competing with all of the others to come up with a 64-digit hexadecimal number which is referred to as a “hash” which is less than or equal to the hash which is targeted. In other words, the computer will be spitting out different hashes at a certain rate per second guessing all of the possible 64-digit numbers until they reach the correct solution.
Therefore, computational power is essential – the more powerful your mining equipment, the larger hash rate per second you’d be able to achieve. This is why the Bitcoin mining hardware is particularly important. Naturally, the cost of mining would be based on a the operation costs such as electricity, internet connection, hardware maintenance, and so forth.
This is the main reason for which back in 2013 bitcoin miners started to use machines which were specifically designed for mining cryptocurrencies. These are called Application-Specific Integrated Circuits or ASIC mining, for short. ASIC mining devices can cost a serious amount of money but are more efficient than traditional computers.
There are a few important things to be considered when it comes to BTC mining. These are some of its pillar components, so to speak.
  1. Blocks
One of the things to be aware of in the world of Bitcoin mining is blocks. Transaction data is recorded in files which are called blocks. Think of it as a page from your city’s recordbook. Blocks are organized into a chain in chronological order – hence, blockchain. New transactions, as they are being confirmed by miners, go into new blocks, with each new block is being added to the end of the chain. This is why blockchain is also referred to as records of blocks.
  1. Block Rewards
Is Bitcoin mining profitable? This is probably the most commonly asked question. Unfortunately, there is no one answer. Block rewards are what miners compete for. Other cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin Cash, for instance, also have their own block rewards which differ from those of Bitcoin.
At inception, every single bitcoin block reward was worth 50 BTC. However, the protocol works in a way where the block reward is being halved after 210,000 blocks have been discovered. This takes roughly around four years to complete. As of July 9th, 2016, the reward for discovering one block is 12.5 BTC.
So is Bitcoin mining profitable? It depends. One would have to calculate the current block reward based on the current prices and compare that to the cost of mining, which varies from miner to miner.
It’s worth noting that the reward for successful Bitcoin miners will drop once again in May 2020 and it will decrease to 6.25 BTC per block from the current 12.5.
  1. Hash Rate
To put it in the most basic terms, hash rate represents the speed at which bitcoin mining hardware can guess the correct hash. Therefore, the faster your hash rate is the higher the chances of discovering the new block you have. BTC mining has become highly competitive and, as such, you need to consider getting powerful bitcoin mining hardware. Individual miners, can, on the other hand, take advantage of cloud mining or mine a coin with lower difficulty, but more on that later.
  1. Difficulty
The difficulty of bitcoin mining is adjusted frequently in order to maintain an average time of about 10 minutes to process a block. The rate is recalculated every 2,016 blocks.
In case you wonder why ten minutes – it’s because bitcoin developers have decided that this is the time needed for a steady and diminishing flow of producing new coins.

WHAT IS A MINING POOL

When it comes to cryptocurrency mining, a mining pool is the combined resources by miners who are sharing their overall computational power over a network in order to split the reward equally based on the amount of work that they have contributed to discovering a new block.
A “share” would be awarded to each member of the mining pool who manages to present a valid partial proof of his work. Mining pools became popular as the difficulty of bitcoin mining increased over time and when it became apparent that individual miners could no longer compete with bigger pools and large-scale mining operations.

WHAT IS CLOUD MINING

Cloud mining, on the other hand, is what allows individual miners to participate in the process without having to purchase particularly expensive bitcoin mining hardware.
If you want to take part in BTC mining but you don’t want to spend the time and resources to get powerful machines, you can use shared processing power provided by remote data centers. The only thing you’d need is a home computer. Generally, there are three types of cloud mining that you can take advantage of. These include:
  1. Hosted Mining
You can lease a mining machine which is hosted by the provider.
  1. Virtual Hosted Mining
This is a method which would require you to create a virtual private server and after that install your own mining software.
  1. Lease Hash Power
Cloud mining also allows you to lease a certain amount of hash power without having the best bitcoin mining hardware. This is likely to be the most popular method of all. Most of the providers offer comprehensive calculators that you can take advantage of to determine the current profitability based on the resources you are ready to spend.
However, it’s important to pay special attention when it comes to cloud mining as there are fraudulent service providers. It’s crucial to make proper and in-depth due-diligence, especially if you intend to lease hash power. One of the largest cloud Bitcoin mining companies out there is Genesis Mining.

ENERGY CONSUMPTION: THINGS TO BE AWARE OF

Mining bitcoin is intentionally designed to be energy intensive. The computational power needed to solve the abovementioned complex math problems requires a lot of electricity to power up the specialized mining hardware.
On the flipside, it requires even more resources to attack the network than to defend it, making Bitcoin the most secure blockchain today.
In fact, there is an entire pseudo-environmentalist brigade which aims to have the regular user believe that Bitcoin mining would somehow be the death of the planet. A lot of their arguments revolve around the fact that large data centers used for carrying out the math computations use tremendous amount of electricity. However, Bitcoinist recently outlined three reasons for which this rhetoric is complete nonsense.
According to clean energy researcher Katrina Kelly-Pitou, the entire debate on the overall electricity consumption by bitcoin mining facilities is headed in the wrong direction. The research outlines that electricity consumption can increase while, at the same time, have minimal impact on the environment. This is because those facilities gradually begin to use more efficient, sources of energy which are renewable. Not only does this make mining more profitable, but it also lowers the impact on the environment. The researcher also outlined that banks use three times more electricity than Bitcoin’s network.
What is more, a brand new report concluded that 80 percent of Bitcoin mining is running on renewable energy. This is unsurprising since miners are naturally incentivized to seek the cheapest and cleanest sources of energy, many of which are renewables such as hydroelectricity (e.g. Iceland).
If you’re worried about Bitcoin consuming too much energy, you might want to think twice about lighting up the Christmas lights this year. That’s right – the lights that American consumers alone use to decorate their homes for the occasion make up a gigantic 6.63 billion kilowatt hours of electricity consumption every single year. That’s more than the entire national energy consumptions of a lot of the developing countries every year. For example, both Ethiopia and El Salvador used less electricity per year.
However, if you decide to set up a mining rig in your garage, you can most definitely expect a more expensive electricity bill next month.

BEST BITCOIN MINING HARDWARE: THINGS TO CONSIDER

There are a few key parameters to look out for when it comes to choosing the best bitcoin mining hardware. These include:
Naturally, you want to be aware of how much electricity does your miner consume. The lower this number, the better.
As we explained above, the hash rate is essential for bitcoin mining. The larger this number is, the better the machine is, generally.
This measurement accounts for the efficiency of your machine. If this particular number is low, it means that the machine will consume less power for the same amount of work done by the machine.
There is a range of different devices produced by some of the largest companies in the field such as Bitmain Technologies, Canaan Creative, Halong Mining, Innosilicon Technology, and others of the kind.

WHAT ELSE CAN YOU MINE?

Bitcoin is not the only cryptocurrency which can be mined. It’s worth noting, though, that if you are using a specialized cryptocurrency mining hardware you’d have to check the compatible digital currencies, as some of the devices would only allow you to mine selected cryptocurrencies. However, apart from Bitcoin, other popular choices include Bitcoin Cash, Monero, Dogecoin, Litecoin, and so forth.

CONCLUSION

If you managed to make it thus far, you should have a general understanding of the main principles behind bitcoin mining and why it is essential to its network.
At the same time, bitcoin mining represents an alternative method to acquire the digital currency. Of course, if you don’t feel like investing time and efforts into it, let alone designating specialized bitcoin mining hardware, you can always check our detailed guide on to how to buy cryptocurrencies.
We’ve gone in depth on how to buy Bitcoin with Paypal, credit card, debit card, and even with cash. We’ve also covered some of the most popular platforms where you can buy Bitcoin.
Once you’ve done that, you can hop to our comprehensive guide to Bitcoin wallets and determine whether you want a web-based one or an offline, hardware solution instead.
submitted by SwitchKanun to hashflareinfo [link] [comments]

[Request] The energy consumption of various things relative to Bitcoin

Andreas Antonopolous was featured on a CaSE podcast. At around -00:15:00, he provides a response about energy consumption in Bitcoin. I would like to verify the following claims regarding energy consumption.
Bitcoin's energy use is one hundreth of the energy used in mining gold. Gold is integral to the monetary system that Bitcoin is directly trying to replace. There are also environmental costs of mining gold - from sulphuric acid leeching into rivers, denuding hills, destroying mountains, etc. A tiny fraction is being used for industrial use, the vast majority of gold is being held as store of value.
Let's take a look at things like Christmas lights. The entire electricity use of Bitcoin in a year pales in comparison to the 1 week of electricity being used to power Christmas lights in the US alone. There are additional effects such as light pollution, and the majority does not come from renewable resources. You can argue about the pointlessness of such tradition.
More practically, every charging device with a step-down converter sits plugged in and coverts electricity to heat. The estimated power this consumes is 2 orders of magnitudes greater than what Bitcoin consumes. This is a worldwide phenomenon which is an enormous drain of energy.
The world's largest polluters and energy spenders are military; the main purpose they serve is to kill people.
We can estimate the lower bound of energy consumption, and say that it is unlikely that the real number is twice as much as the lower bound. The energy requirement to do a hash is a fundamental thermodynamic law. You're flipping bits, and they take a certain amount of energy to flip. You know the computational energy efficiency of 16nm ASIC-based chips. If you assume the network operates on this (which is incorrect, but again, lower bound estimate), and we know exactly how many hashes/sec are being calculated, because that's recorded on the blockchain, then we can calculate exactly how many joules of energy it takes. If you assume 50% of miners have 1 generation of miners behind (unlikely, because miners require optimisation), then it is at most 1.5x the lower bound of energy consumption.
It is easy to estimate the amount of energy being used in Bitcoin, which makes it an easy target. When you use your VISA card, you do not see the 600,000 employees who commute to work using gasoline-burning cars, the 26-story buildings which are lit 24 hours a day, data centers which are doing fraud prevention and analytics, as well as selling data to intelligence agencies and advertisers. All of this costs a lot of money and energy, and arguably just as "wasteful," but it's a hidden cost.
Thanks and much appreciated.
submitted by lobt to theydidthemath [link] [comments]

Mining. What will the “arms race” lead to?

The ten-year history of the blockchain has gradually convinced world experts that this phenomenon can still become the starting point for the transformation of the entire world economy. Perhaps this is still not a revolution and the technology is far from perfect.
But the main thing is that the precedent has been created and the development of alternatives in this direction is going on by leaps and bounds. The financial sphere is not the only one where the incentives are created by blockchain. A powerful infrastructure is built around it with attempts to implement technology into other spheres of human life. The production of crypto-currency, known to everyone as mining is one of such means. Cryptocurrency is the collective noun for digital currencies created on the basis of blockchain technology. For encryption, there is a special principle of cryptography, which protects information about transactions from theft and counterfeiting.
Mining is the process of cryptographic calculations with a use of special equipment. For Bitcoin and many other cryptocurrencies, it is the only way to maintain the integrity and workability of the system. Here is a brief description of the operating principle for the newcomers. Technology creates the ability to transfer value (information) from one user to another. At the same time, the transfer of non-existent value and the transfer of one unit to several addressees are excluded. The key to this is a large number of participants in the system and the economic motivation of the miners. Once a transaction is initiated in the system, it becomes visible to all participants. This transparency is both the main feature and the advantage of blockchain. No transaction is considered committed until the information about it gets into the so-called block and will be confirmed several times – this is the function that the miners provide. For a block to be considered generated, the program must compute a hash function – a unique alphanumeric code that contains information about the previous block. Thus, the distributed database in the blockchain is a chain of blocks, each of which refers to the previous one and stores the history of all transactions that occurred since the first coin appeared. Once the block takes its place in the chain, the miner who generated it receives a cryptocurrency reward – this is how coins are issued. In addition, the miners receive a commission from each transaction.
Blockchain – the technology of recording and storing information, when data is written in a continuous chain of blocks. It is based on the principle of distributed registries - information is copied and stored not on one server, but on all computers that are part of the blockchain system.
Now let's take a quick look at the evolution of mining, touching only the significant events. It all began in 2008, when an unknown programmer published a document on the network describing the algorithm of the quasi-monetary tool based on the technology of the blockchain. According to the published algorithm of Satoshi Nakamoto, the author of the document, the remuneration of the miners is reduced by 50% every 210 thousand of mined blocks. At that time, each newly generated block brought 50 new coins. Now more than 477 thousand blocks have been generated, and the reward for each new one has fallen to 12.5 BTC. It is expected that by 2140 year the reward will be so small that the issue will virtually stop and the volume of bitcoins will not exceed 21 million BTC. According to the idea of the creator, this will protect the cryptocurrency from inflation. It is unknown now whether Satoshi assumed or not how quickly his offspring would grow up. Mining on PC processors, the most massive chips in the world, supposed to make Bitcoin truly decentralized and popular. But for a while it still remained only the entertainment of geeks and enthusiasts. By 2010, the both Bitcoin exchange rate and popularity had grown so much that its mining started to yield a small income. Mining began to move to commercial sphere and the rivalry triggered technological race.
The Global Cryptocurrency Benchmarking Study research has shown that since Bitcoin appeared, the miners have earned more than $2 billion on mining and $14 billion on commissions from transactions.
In the summer of that year, a mining farm was first launched on the GPU and the first block was mined using parallel computations. Since then, the age of industrial mining began. Having smelt the money, miners around the world rushed to buy computer graphics cards. Despite the constant increase in equipment costs and attendant maintenance problems, the mining farms continue to attract new followers even now. According to the growing complexity of the cryptocurrency mining, pools, the miner unions, began to form. For one block search, a large number of farms with a high capacity are used, and the reward is divided due to the "labor participation" in it. The power consumption of one GPU is about 200 W, the average power of a medium farm is comparable or even higher than the equipment index in the data center. The problem of energy supply, as well as the noise level and heat that the equipment produces, does not allow the creation of large farms at home. For these reasons, mining has moved to warehousing areas where there is no problem with either noise or cooling, and electricity is available at industrial tariffs. The competition in the niche of the mining farms continues to increase, bringing new profits to the component manufacturers.
Farm is a data center that combines several video cards (GPUs). It shows high computing power, which allows several cryptocurrencies to be mined simultaneously.
In 2011, it became obvious that GPU farms consume too much electricity, require constant attention and additional costs. Enthusiasts were searching for solutions to reduce these expenses. The third mining business development iteration led to the appearance of miners on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chips. Such devices were quite expensive, but much more compact, stable and more energy efficient than the GPU farms. Energy consumption save was thousands of percent. But still, video cards remained the mass solution. Most likely the niche specialization of such machines was the impediment to their popularity. FPGA-miners did not last long and remained a niche product, which did not play a significant role in mass mining. But the developments of manufacturers of these devices were useful to ASIC-miners, which became the next generation of equipment for cryptocurrency mining. Unlike FPGAs, which are used for a variety of tasks, ASIC chips (Application Specific Integrated Cirquit) were designed to perform only one task. But they perform it much better than any farm. The difference in performance of similar devices makes tens of times. However, there is also a downside, which prevents the mass distribution of ASIC-miners - zero liquidity in the secondary market. They work according to the algorithm, which allows mining of only three cryptocurrencies known today. The production of this specific equipment lasts even now, but all producers have problems with delivery. This is indicated by the general complaints of customers at specialized forums. In the context of battered cryptocurrency rate, this factor strongly inhibits their sales. The "arms race" being an endless capacity build-up has reached the level when the most popular cryptocurrency mining is no longer economically justified. The current size of one Bitcoin block is 1 MB, which allows the system to process no more than seven transactions per second. Visa or MasterCard payment systems witness such index to reach about two thousand, with capacity expenses being several times lower. This makes the entire system clumsy and inconvenient, and increasing the commission from each transaction for the miners can ruin the Bitcoin economy, as well as any other coin economy.
ASIC – processors are manufactured with a special mining-friendly architecture. Such devices have a high payback rate and are easy to maintain. Among cons are low liquidity in the secondary market and rapid ASIC outdate due to the growing complexity of the network.
A complexity increase obviously cannot last forever and, sooner or later, there must be a transition to the next level. And this is the turning point where many questions may appear. What is the possible way of blockchain and mining development? This is important to understand, because an equipment worth hundreds of millions is at stake! What if it suddenly becomes useless? There are several assumptions. The first way is to reduce costs. Some hopes for this are provided by the development of alternative energy. Receiving freemium energy will reduce the cost of mining. This issue is regularly discussed on specialized forums. The creation of farms using solar, wind and geothermal power is still only at the stage of the concept. There have not been any major projects implemented. Due to the fact that the cost of equipment is still large, the entry threshold with such systems is very high, and the payback of equipment is still slow and thus risky. It is unlikely that this will become mainstream for the next five years, but the possibility of a breakthrough technology that makes renewable energy available, still exists. The second possible script is the abandonment of mining as a phenomenon. Bitcoin, which implies the efficiency of mining depending directly on the equipment productivity, uses the Proof-of-Work protocol. Some cryptocurrencies use the Proof-of-Stake protocol. They do not imply mining as a mandatory process at all. The system exists due to the circulation of cryptocurrency among users. By the way, this protocol is the one that Ethereum platform is planning to move to. This has already been stated by Vitalik Buterin, the creator of Ethereum: "When we move to the Proof-of-Stake protocol, the need for ether mining will drop sharply even at the first stage. Proof-of-Stake uses an algorithm which does not require that a large number of computers constantly make calculations. This is an algorithm where a coin is used inside the platform itself. The consensus will become much cheaper and safer. And in fact, miners can lose their business." Imagine the joy of computer gamers when suddenly the CPU prices fall dramatically! Now it is too early to speak about panic, but if the creators of other cryptocurrencies will consider this... The third way is to reduce the complexity of computation in the blockchain due to the use of alternative protocols of cryptography. Some industry enthusiasts are already working on such projects. If the complexity of the calculations goes beyond the reasonable, then why not change the operation of the system in general? So did, for example, the creators of Blockchain Ventureon.
Anton Sobor, the BDM of Ventureon, claimed: "The complexity of mining is laid by the blockchain creators themselves. What are they motivated by while creating such complicated algorithms? The answer remains unclear. The complexity has inconsiderable affect on safety. Creating our project, we proceed from the personal experience of our cryptography specialists, as well as from the principle of "necessary is enough". All the functions of the blockchain are preserved, with security only increasing, and complexity decreasing prominently."
It is also interesting that Ventureon mining does not require GPU. It is planned instead to create server-side mining pools, probably for easier and less expensive connection of the miners. This is likely to become a great advantage over another farms.
Of course, these are not all possible ways of mining industry development, but only the most vivid and obvious directions. There is one thing to say for sure. Mining being a mass business will exist only if the rate of specific cryptocurrencies increases. And this, in turn, depends on whether the blockchain will be accepted into the world economic system, as an alternative financial tool. The attempts to regulate the circulation of cryptocurrency at the level of individual states cause a strong resonance of the crypto community. That is perfectly visible on fluctuations of the rates of the basic cryptocurrencies. But, in my opinion, it is not possible to strangle the initiative of enthusiasts completely. The point of no return has been already reached. Blockchain as a phenomenon has been proved to be effective and will develop further, influencing the society strongly. And only time will tell what its future will be.
submitted by VentureOnICO to crypto_mining [link] [comments]

Looking for help getting an ASIC

Hello Reddit, I'm just here to share my story of Bitcoin mining over the last year. Nothing special, and probably typical of many of the users here.
I'm wondering if there are any "old" hat Bitcoin miners who would like to help sponsor a fellow Bitcoin believer out. I have been a GPU Miner for the last 6 months, but I was a CPU miner well over a year ago. I only mined for a few months, and didn't know what I was doing, and I don't think I even solved any blocks. Maybe, I try not to think about it cause I formatted that pc quite a while ago. Back then I was trying to understand Bitcoin, and I wasn't real successful, but I was very interested conceptually in Bitcoin. Both for its Libertarian and apolitical ideologies.
Well I decided to try it again and got my rig going, 6 Video Cards pulling 1.3Ghs (Just stuff I had laying around) and after a few pools finally settled into a good one. It's been good, I've earned 4 BTC since I started and I've been using it to renew domains at namecheap and Oogle hardware @ bitcoinstore.com but I would really like to get into ASIC for heat/expense reasons. I've been looking at my electric bill as "That's how I buy my Bitcoins, for a discount." But I live in Oklahoma, and in the cooler months heating your home by Bitcoin mining is just a bonus. In the summer, it's going to become brutal and I will be forced to shut down my operations for good, unless I can get an ASIC that draws 90 watts instead of 2000 watts.
My plight is that I'm relatively poor. By relatively poor, I mean in this part of Oklahoma you can have a nice home for $70,000 (over 2,000sq Ft.) My electricity costs .07 /Kwh. Compared to others in the area, I make well for myself. However compared to larger cities, this sounds like a total slum, but it's really not here, it's just like a city, it's all about where you go. A family of 4 can live on $35,000 a year, and most do. (http://cost-of-living.findthedata.org/l/434/Le-Flore-County-OK-Metro-Area)
So the cost of services is usually cheap, but products are harder to come by at normalized prices, and rightfully so, I know that's just the way it is. On the flip side, if you wanted to buy a used anything on Craigslist, it's usually way cheaper here too.
What I am looking for in one or more fellow believers to help me acquire an ASIC miner like this one ( http://wtcr.ca/catalog/product/bm-ambe1-01 ) so I can continue to participate as worthwhile node in the network. Either donation to me here 12n3grwUaSHkcPCGV3YbrDhGLo9zywTMWL or we could strike a payback plan for 100% of total earnings to be paid back until paid in full and a percentage afterwards, or whatever you would like to do.
I just need to earn $200 / year to pay off my domain names on namecheap, and spend some coin on bitcoinstore.com for upgrades whenever new hardware comes out. I'm not looking to grow a massive mining operation, or be delusional about making a fortune, I just want to be a part of the network.
I love the serious members in the community, I'm mostly silent, but in the real world, I've educated many about Bitcoin, honestly, and accurately. I've even encountered "Hype-ists" people who know a little about Bitcoin but exaggerate things, like value to dollar, etc. I've tried to calm them down and get them to not look like a loon to others. I've even tried to quell the "One World Currency" believers who think Bitcoin is the mark of the devil. <- That is not a joke.
I love Raspberry PI and arduinos, programming, learning new languages, cryptography, and generally anything techie.
TL;DR A broke but easy-going Bitcoin Miner looking to be sponsored in order to buy an ASIC. Donations welcome, as well as negotiating a pay-back+interest arrangement. Multiple sponsors are welcome to help me out to lessen risk to each sponsor, but a full agreement must be met by all sponsors before a deal will be struck. They will be dealing with an experienced miner who needs no help knowing what to do.
submitted by larceniii to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

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It can be paid by a credit card or directly by bitcoin. Mined reward is paid automatically or be used for renewal contracts (new hashrate power), depending on your settings. Check our Hasflare review. Bitcoin Pool mining cloud quick review. Bitcoin Pool – Mining contracts served by official Bitcoin.com page. Minimum purchase is 2 THs so Lucky Mining. For extraction Bitcoin Gold, PoW algorithm (Proof of labor) utilized in mining Bitcoin (BTC) is changed to Equihash, so Maini BTG on exact contraptions ASIC will not be triumphant. It obtained best support from the GPU miners, which actually have a positive have an effect on on the fame of Bitcoin Gold. A 2013 thread on bitcoin.org titled "why is the asic development cost > 1M" shared a few numbers: [1] a long-wave receiver, involved 10 engineers for a year for $500k, two engineering tape-outs $250k, and $250k for 10k chips + verification and validation hardware. [2] The avalon bitcoin mining chip probably cost around $400k in total that was Bitcoin mining manufactures and pool operations have failed in great numbers over the last five years with companies like Butterfly Labs, Mining ASIC Technologies, BTC Guild, and Cointerra. At that time, machines manufactured by those companies only processed 10-15TH/s. Peso wallet, so bakkt bitcoin you have announced you get their wallets, but you can ride whilst it a wallet where you can benefit from, including personal information name lolli bitcoin and understanding bitcoin, credit card, with automated trading signals in 2013. Secure socket level courses and authorities in the savings before running

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Best Bitcoin Mining Site Without Investment Payment Proof! - best bitcoin mining site 2020 with live payment proof website: https://bit.ly/City-Mine In this video, I describe 5 free bitcoin cloud ... 2020 New Tablet Ten Core 6 + 128GB WiFi Tablet PC Android 8.1 HD IPS Screen Dual SIM Card Call ... BTC miner Ebit E9.3 16TH/s BTC Bitcoin Mining machine Asic Miner ... Coolest Bitcoin Mining ... Buy Now : http://s.click.aliexpress.com/e/_dZ6b9RS Get this awesome product ONLY $ 204.25 ! Promo: Discount 5% used old Asic Miner Bitcoin Miner WhatsMiner M... The wholesale embrace of Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) mining for Bitcoin ( BTC ) could increase the cost of a 51% attack by a factor of up to 2,000. Here in this tutorial, I show you how to setup an ASIC Bitcoin miner on a regular Windows PC. Like, Comment and Subscribe for more videos/tips/suggestions. Good Mining!

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