NASA to Launch Bitcoin to the Moon? Space Agency Seeks

Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given public key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[ Bitcoin ] Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

Topic originally posted in Bitcoin by almkglor [link]
This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given private key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

almkglor your post has been copied because one or more comments in this topic have been removed. This copy will preserve unmoderated topic. If you would like to opt-out, please send a message using [this link].
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[lets build] Sci fi megastructures

1-Dyson spheres
2-Ring worlds
3-Deathstar like bases.
4-Sun forge like from avengers; inifinity war
5-Artifical planets
6-Giant gateways that allow planets to transfer other galaxies
7-Science Nexus
8-Sentry Array
9-Mega artistic objects
10-Giant settelaties
11-Hallow planets
12-Artificial suns
13-Artificial black holes
14-Planet-sized giant ships
15-Space elevators
16-Planet spanning rings
17-Giant asteriod stations
18-Artifical star systems
19-Spacehulks (from warhammer 40k)
20-Giant mining stations
21-Hallows stars
22-Flattened worlds/Disk worlds
23-Machine worlds
24-Webway (From warhammer 40k)
25-Contructs inside of black holes
26-Artifical Dimensions
27-Dimension Nexus that connects with other dimensions
28-Artifical moons
29-Artifical habitable biological constructs
30-Planet/starsytem/galaxy sized giant super computers
Crossallthewires
31 - Space Elevators leading from a planet's surface to an orbital platform.
32 - A Sun- Starter, a gigantic orbital platform made up of rings that orbit a sun and blast it with energy to stave off it's inevitable death.
33 - An entire planet, equipped with a vast engine to allow it to travel around the universe.
34 - An interplanetary junk barge with gigantic crushing claws and arms, capable of turning any of these other structures into scrap-metal.
35 - A forcefield generator covering an entire planet (think Rogue One)
Zombehking
36 - a supercomputer atomized and scattered in a dust cloud around a solar system, still functional.
37 - star engine to move solar system(s) like space ships.
38-A Giant, planet sized robot
39-A giant, planet sized mech
40-A giant, sun sized robot/ship
41-A giant, sun sized mech/ship
42-A starsytem sized robot/mech/ship
43-A galaxy sized robot/mech/ship
44-A cybrog planet
45-Alive/bio organic contruct planets
Martinus_XIV
46-A giant machine that slowly travels from solar system to solar system, devouring planets as it goes. It is a weapon of mass destruction leftover from an ancient, devastating war.
47-A void in space where nothing exists; no matter, no energy, no dimensions, inhabited by an intelligence that likes to toy with spacefarers that wander into its domain.
48-A generation ship embedded within an asteriod. The inhabitants have long since forgotten its mission and don't even know that there is a world outside of their ship.
49-A Dyson Sphere-like structure built around a black hole, generating power by shooting particle beams through its ergosphere.
50-A stellaser; a Dyson Sphere-like structure harnessing the power of a star into a Death Star-like laser.
51-A Boltzmann-civilization; an entire civilization that has just popped into being as a result of a quantum fluctuation. It didn't exist a few seconds ago, yet believes it has a history going back millions of years.
52-A massive klein bottle that actually loops through the 4th dimension.
53-Planet core forges
54-Giant planet water cleaners
55-Giant trash disposers
56-Giant, hard light constructs
Zer05tar
57-Communications Array - Able to communicate with far distant outposts, both allies and enemies.
58-Power Refiling Station - Unmanned stations that is in orbit that collects solar power and converts it to usable energy for ships that are out of juice. Complete with wet bar and hour rates hotels.
FirstChAoS
59- A series of giant lenses that can be aligned to turn thesun into a giant laser
60- A mining machine designed to grind whole planets into ore.
ArchDeconstructor
• 61- Gravitational sling engine: a sun-sized array of concentric facilities that can manipulate gravity to send nearby celestial bodies on targeted parabolic arcs at nearly the speed of light, or to target faraway systems and very slowly adjust their location relative to other nearby systems.
• ⁠62- terraforming drone supercarrier, which drops into star systems it hasn't visited before and deploys millions of building-sized robotic platforms to terraform any suitable planetary masses. Or to create planets, by smashing lots of smaller junk together, and then terraforming those.
• ⁠63-galactic FTL inhibitor, which draws upon the ambient gravity of the galactic core to constantly, potentially fatally, disrupt any attempts to enter FTL while within the galaxy it was built in.
• ⁠64-planetary museum, composed of sextillions of metric tons of structured spacetime computation to store information, and matter-holography chambers to assemble or at least visualize exhibits.
• ⁠65-An Infinite Forest a la Mercury in Destiny/Destiny 2, a planet reshaped into forms of exotic programmable matter that simultaneously simulate multiple timelines branching past and forwards.
• ⁠66- A solar system-sized containment field acting as a zoo for spacefaring organisms.
67-Artificial white holes
68-Artifical nebulas
69-Stellar engine
70-A warp hole that allows time travel
71-A warm hole that transports suns to other systems
72-Jump gate, a gate that reduces travel time between systems
73-Bishop ring
74-Niven ring
75-Shkadov thruster
76-Kraskinow tube
77-Portal that allows instant travel
78-Stargate
79-Hyper gate
80-Space bridge
81-Halo
82-Banks orbital
83-Alderson disk
84-Stellar scale
85-Gas giant refinary
86-Cloud city
87-Aerostat
88-Bernal sphere
89-Rungworld
90-Space ladder
91-Skyhook
92-Launch assist tether
93-The crystal megabore
94-Psionic hypersiphon, allows psionic powers enhanced in a star sytem and allows telepatic comunication
95-Teleporter that allows instant teleportation in a starsytem both for vehicles and people
96-The lunar speculorefractor
97-The hyperstructural assembly yard
98-The birch world
99-Ecumenopolis
Doug mantis
• ⁠100- massive catamari. • ⁠101-Universe simulation computer. • ⁠102-Gravity rod launcher, shoots planet-sized rails at FTL speeds. • ⁠103-Terra-deconstructor, surrounds and melts/harvests planets. • ⁠104-A pack of supermassive cybernetic space-whales. • ⁠105-Quadrillionaire's private docking station. • ⁠106-Private megastructure construction facility, build all this shit. • ⁠107-Big-bang generator, turns matter into nothing, generates power. • ⁠108-Defeated grey goo blob, enormous mass of electronic goo, now non-functional. • ⁠109-Supermassive Bitcoin miner, mines bitcoin so efficiently that all other miners are rendered useless. • ⁠110-Sphere inversion machine, allows planets to exist in their own pocket dimension. • ⁠111-'Song of the Aairomng', a massive machine built to generate noise in the vacuum of space. Blasts strange music throughout it's galaxy.
112-City from vallerian and the city of thousand races or something
Slaaich
113-Culture Orbital
114-O'Neill colony
115-A massive spiderlike machine that captures habitable planets and drags them back to a central solar system where it collects them.
116-massive prison ship designed to hold a Leviathan capable of eating entire stars. Empty and showing signs of damage.
17-Satellite equipped with stealth technology that sits in orbit around pre interstellar planets and subtly manipulates the civilizations below into accepting alien invasions
Holy, moly that was fast. Since my computer skills are so poor i am just going to add all this to a comment on which you create D100(or you know, more) I want to thank each and every one of you for this. I couldn't do it without you.👏
PS;(If you want write more just do it. I will add the no mater what. More content are always welcome😀)
submitted by Alpbasket to d100 [link] [comments]

Progress Report #0: The Mod So Far

Hello everyone. If you don't know already, I'm LuxLoser, lead developer for Hearts of Durasteel, a Star Wars mod for Hearts of Iron IV. This first progress report is to convey the general state of the mod and basic information. I will also be adding posts for the available leaks/declassified documents from the Discord, and the next progress report will come once the map is fully created, at least visually.
THE MAP
The map of Durasteel is a major component, as this isn't just an alternate history mod. Instead, it takes the map of Earth as we know it chucks it out, instead giving you a full map of the Star Wars Galaxy. "But how?" you might ask.
Well, the first thing we have done is create planets. They will be flat, 2-D items, representative of the planet as a whole. Think of it as a top-down view of a flattened globe, and the march of troops around the planet represents control of a certain region, of the southern hemisphere, of the large sea, of the mines, etc. The small provinces within the planets mean that planets aren't just one time battles but at times lengthy campaigns. Events during battles will also help make up for the limitations we have in depicting interstellar ground warfare. Planets that have no importance or are inhospitable and not valuable won't be depicted. Instead it is 'major' world displayed, not a star system. Various moons and satellites, however, are displayed near the planet, and important systems within the same system are placed close to one another.
Here is a look at the map layout, though it is, of course, constantly being updated. And here is an example of a planet and moon.
When we first started testing this idea in practice, the map looked like this. From there we did more refinement and ended up with this. You'll notice it very much looks like a bunch of islands in a very open sea. Technically, that's what it will always be, but we want to simulate the idea of a simplified map of space. We are still refining it, but the biggest things we tackled were: 1. the reflection of clouds, 2. waves and sea texture, 3. a space background. The reflection issue was easy enough, and we were able to figure out how to put in a background (admittedly still darkened and desaturated) not long after. But the issue of waves persisted. However, not long ago, we hit a break through and were able to remove the waves.
Here is the physical map as it exists presently. Here is a look at Coruscant and its moons and 'orbit tile'. And finally, here is a close up of Alderaan and a look at the stand-in "planetary ocean", which is blue mountains. We're still looking into improving the look.
We still have on the map agenda: 1. The sun. There is a light glare on the 'ocean' we are looking into disabling. 2. Improving the color of the background 3. Creating a proper, detailed space background with fairly accurate stars and easy to see hyperlanes 4. Improving planetary ocean look 5. Improving the height map to remove the rough look of the 'islands'
NATIONS
A lot less to cover here as I just want to clarify a few things. Firstly, we are not going for a plan of “every planet a tag.” Instead, while we do have plans for a number of tags, the approach is to have at game start, a large nation in the form of the Galactic Republic. The Republic will not be entirely united, with regions moving away from the Republic shown as separate puppets. This is a sort of narrative tool, as it shows that while some regions within the Republic have their own agendas, they believe in the Republic and respect its government. Near the Republic will be the CIS, focused on Serenno led by Dooku, at this point a growing movement that rejects the Republic government. The corporate states that he is enticing will be shown as moving away until the Battle of Geonosis comes and lines are drawn in the sand. The CIS will swell and the war will begin. The Neutral Systems will spawn not long after, refusing to accept either side of the conflict as their sovereign. Alongside all of this will be the Hutts and the Chiss. The former will be a large but fractured group, each of the leader of the Cartel having their own demesne. And the Chiss will be sitting in isolation, content on tackling their own issues. So, at the start there will be only a few nations available.
Why? Well the reason this mod is being made with Hearts of Iron IV is the unique way in which the event chains and the focus trees can be used to tell a story for a nation. Our objective is in taking Star Wars and allowing the player to craft their story. Fewer tags, more paths, more branches to the stories. Some of those stories will include switching to a different tag of a new nation, others will not. That the story is logical, sensible, and that the ways it affects the galaxy are cohesive is what will be important. Because Star Wars isn’t just some science fiction setting. It’s a Space Opera, a dramatic saga of heroes and villains, of the rise and fall of nations, of legends and myths, of prophecy and legacy. While we want to give the player choice, we have to be careful not to give total freedom. The massive conspiracies, intertwining stories, the presence of the Force, and the overarching themes of Star Wars mean that you can’t just be a rogue agent. There will be consequences, events that transpire because of things beyond your control. I want each playthrough to feel like it has a narrative, a story told in an unconventional medium. When you click “Senator Amidala dies!” I want it to be a little more than just an event that changes your focus tree and gives you some political power loss. I want the events that unfold, the war that ensues, the future that is written to feel like it was destined, not just random occurrences bumping into each other. That was a bit of an avant-garde rant there, but hopefully you’ll know what I mean as things progress.
But the question you might still have on tags is, “Well what about later on?” And that is more than fair. Ultimately there will be a number of tags, but mostly regional, with a few planets collected together around regional leaders. Forming each will take specific circumstances. So why not every world a tag? Well it also helps to demonstrate my personal view on how an interstellar nation functions on a greater scale. Namely, some systems are effectively “swept under the rug”. Due to the distance from major trade routes, economic capacity, population disparity, and military size, the neighbors of larger worlds are going to rally behind regional leaders, due in part to being just unable to stand alone. Worlds like Alderaan and Corellia, while having separate representatives than their neighboring systems, would have such sway and hegemony that the only reason their neighbors wouldn’t vote with them as a block is personal politics, and even that is more like one region being more liberal than another within one state and so electing a different party to the shared delegation than the others. But if the Republic were to just be dissolved, Alderaan’s neighbors, despite political differences, would be forced to work together, and work with Alderaan, to survive. This is partly due to the needs of a population accustomed to an economy where resources are practically infinite due to the shared resources of so many worlds in the galaxy. Unless a planet wanted to become an austere hermit kingdom, they have to work with more powerful neighbors. The materials used for infrastructure, the energy sources, the technological grids, the economic sectors, everything on a planet would be accustomed to what was available on the galactic market as a whole. Doonitum is common is some areas, but may be utterly unavailable on a planet. However, their security fleet is still made with doontium hulls, despite the metal not existing on their worlds. So unless they want their planet invaded and crushed, they need a doontium trade to survive.
The other component leading to regional leadership is how space travel works in Star Wars. Hyperspace Routes, planned paths of transit, and the perils of ‘rough space’ via nebulas and asteroid belts and so on, means it’s almost like Earth before air travel. If you’re far from a main route, ships will need to go through perilous, uncharted regions. Even before making that journey, if you’re an isolated world far from any routes, ships are first going to jump to the nearest planet close to a safe Hyperspace route. Imagine you’re a town near Florence in 13th Century Italy. Traders go to Florence on the main road before trying to reach you, and if it’s too much risk, you’re better off sending your own traders into Florence before they return. Say you’re on a minor road, one that branches off of the southern road to Florence. You want goods from north of Florence? Then you’re reliant on Florentine traders bringing it. And when war comes? You’ll need the Florentine army to hold off invaders. And so, despite disliking Florence, having your own culture, traditions, and political views, your town is under the jurisdiction of the Florentine city-state. Replace Florence with Corellia and Corellian and you see that due to the nature of hyper-space transit and the constrictions of moving through space itself, history has almost become cyclical for these minor worlds. Not to mention that as this situation persists, Corellian culture, ideals, and people would seep in, until what you have most in common with other minor world near Corellia is just Corellian you all are!
On a less philosophical or artistic note, let’s be honest. You really want to try to manage a game where you’re the faction leader of 50 minor nations, all with their own AIs? It would be a nightmare, especially when the war starts and each AI tries to command its own troops. And a major city on a planet falls? Rather than just lose some war score you can regain as your troops on the moons or nearby work to reclaim it, you instead get “THE WELSH UNION HAS CAPITULATED,” giving your enemies free reign in the territory, a huge hit to score, and the cession of control of worlds despite losing little on them.
IDEOLOGIES
This will be getting a separate post soon as well.
Durasteel presently has 11 set ideologies, with a 12th being in discussion in the form of “Grayism”, or “Neutralist”, meaning a state under the control of Gray Jedi. However, this is not yet set. Some of these ideologies, like New Order, the sides of the Force, and to some degree Akaan’adocrat, come from Star Wars canon or from Legends. But Star Wars has always been vague on its politics, leaving to us flexibility and creativity in developing coherent ideologies for gameplay.
Each ideology in the image has a definition but I want to elaborate on that definition here.
RESOURCES
Lastly, we have also begun implementing new resources into the mod. None of these are made up, though some lean more into Legends, as that continuity provides more detail in terms of military supplies. These are as follows, and in order on the screen:
Alright well that’s most of what I wanted to address in this report, giving everyone an awareness of where the mod is at in terms of development. Hopefully we can have more regular Progress Reports, but with University, work, and other projects that devs are involved with, we’re trying our best to move as quick as we can. Thank you all for your support.
Vode An!
submitted by LuxLoser to HeartsOfDurasteel [link] [comments]

Kickstarter Roundup: Jan 28, 2018 | 19 Ending Soon (incl: Tokyo Series: JIDOHANBAIKI, METRO, & JUTAKU) & 35 New This Week (incl: UBOOT)

What this is:

This is a weekly, curated listing of Kickstarter tabletop games projects that are either:
All board game projects meeting those criteria will automatically be included, no need to ask. (But the occasional non-board game project may also sneak in!)
Expect new lists each Sunday sometime between 12:00am and 12:00pm PST.

Ending Soon

Project Info Status Backers Avg Pledge Ending Comments
Heropath - Dragon Roar Go out on an adventure, discover unique 3D place sites, interact with your opponents and monsters and be the first to slay the Dragon! (Has currently earned $17,796 of $12,500) 142% 240 $74 01-30 kicktraq#take2
Kingdoms of Erden: King of the Mountain card game expansion Collect faction members and dominate the mountain in this set collection strategy fantasy card game. Ages 10+ 2-4 players 15-45 min (Has currently earned $990 of $600) 165% 57 $17 01-31 kicktraq #expansion
Elder-Forge tier 1 A collection of four resin kits by Elder-Forge, A limited edition of sculptures in different scales to assemble and paint! (Has currently earned €2,708 of €900) 300% 44 €62 01-31 kicktraq #minis
Supernatural Socks - A Tabletop Game About Lost Socks Have you ever lost your socks in the dryer? Well, Supernatural Socks is a game about the ghost that takes those socks. (Has currently earned $12,516 of $10,000) 125% 337 $37 01-31 kicktraq
The Dice Tower - 2018 The Dice Tower enters its fourteenth season. We are raising funds to continue our coverage of board games and the people who play them. (Has currently earned $261,826 of $200,000) 130% 5642 $46 01-31 kicktraq #show
Hit Me! The Comic Book Fist Fight Card Game Ever wanted to punch your friends like they do in the comics? Now you can with this quick push-your-luck filler game! (Has currently earned $2,070 of $1,000) 206% 51 $41 02-01 kicktraq
Black Hole Council A negotiation and deduction game about secret agendas and throwing planets into a black hole. (Has currently earned $36,751 of $20,000) 183% 965 $38 02-01 kicktraq
Fantasy Football Goblin Dice Goblin themed dice for Fantasy Football games (Has currently earned £580 of £500) 115% 26 £22 02-01 kicktraq
Corsair Leader CORSAIR LEADER is a solitaire board game putting you in the cockpits of US Navy and Marine aircraft battling the Japanese during WWII! (Has currently earned $74,888 of $17,000) 440% 606 $124 02-01 kicktraq
Highlander: The Board Game A fast-paced game of strategy and chance in which up to 6 immortals battle to claim the prize. There can be only one! (Has currently earned £29,254 of £10,000) 292% 994 £29 02-02 kicktraq
Countdown: Action Edition One Reckless Action Hero, an Out of Control Hostage Situation, who will You Trust? Welcome to Countdown, the 80's hidden role game! (Has currently earned $11,622 of $7,500) 154% 273 $43 02-02 kicktraq
Championship Baseball 1979 dice/card Game Championship Baseball 1979 is a two team individual card set for the Pine Tar Dice Game Engine. The cards feature a streamlined layout. (Has currently earned $456 of $200) 227% 21 $22 02-02 kicktraq
War Along the Chesapeake - Limited 250 Copies Volume 1 of 3 in the War of 1812 Campaign Series. There will only 250 copies printed. For 2 players. Plays in 1 to 2 hours. (Has currently earned $22,081 of $1,000) 2208% 227 $97 02-03 kicktraq
Heavy Gear Blitz! Utopia Armed Forces Plastic Miniatures Kickstarter to fund the plastic injection mold need to make plastic miniatures for Dream Pod 9's Heavy Gear Blitz! - Tabletop Wargame. (Has currently earned $18,801 CAD of $30,000 CAD) 62% 135 $139 CAD 02-03 kicktraq #minis
FROM BEYOND: DISTRESS CALL Sci-fi RPG Adventure A Starfinder Roleplaying game compatible sci-fi adventure set in a newly discovered star system. The first of a six episode saga. (Has currently earned MX$8,240 of MX$2,000) 412% 55 MX$150 02-03 kicktraq #rpg
Status Report! A 15 minute social deduction game for 3-7 players about a starship Captain attempting to save their crew from Rampant AI. (Has currently earned $14,943 of $17,000) 87% 393 $38 02-03 kicktraq
MINI Metal Polyhedral Dice Sets from Metallic Dice Games Our same great metal dice colors- but MINI! Mini metal dice are rarely found in the dice market, until now! (Has currently earned $16,675 of $10,000) 166% 318 $52 02-04 kicktraq #dice
TOKYO SERIES: JIDOHANBAIKI, METRO, & JUTAKU JIDOHANBAIKI - Vending machines and guest designers METRO - Heavy economic train simulation JUTAKU - Real time dexterity for 1-8 (Has currently earned $152,928 of $21,000) 728% 1680 $91 02-04 kicktraq5

New This Week

Project Info Status Backers Avg Pledge Ending Comments
5 Stack, A Chip Stacking Game of Strategy and Chance 5 Stack is an incredibly "easy to learn" chip stacking board game, that involves strategy and chance. Fun for 2-6 Players, Ages 5+. (Has currently earned $4,834 of $35,000) 13% 71 $68 03-02
Auditions A brand new fun party game for everyone to enjoy! (Has currently earned £170 of £3,000) 5% 6 £28 02-09 #take5
Bitcoin Empire: To The Moon A card game about bitcoin and a conspiracy that the moon landings are fake. (Has currently earned £669 of £10,000) 6% 20 £33 02-24
BLOCKCHAIN: The Cryptocurrency Game An action-based strategy game for the new millennium! Mine, hack, trade, and store coins to be the first one to fill your vault. (Has currently earned $2,716 of $40,000) 6% 50 $54 02-24
Canon Fodder: The Game of Fandom and Charades Canon Fodder is a card game which has you acting as your favorite fictional characters in different and hilarious situations. (Has currently earned $7 of $6,000) 0% 1 NA 02-28 #lolwut
Crime Pays You’re a horrible person. But that’s okay. Nice guys finish last because they’re pussies. Rob, Scam, and Deal your way to millions. (Has currently earned $426 of $15,000) 2% 6 $71 03-23
Da Share Z0ne: THE DEVIL'S LEVEL Card Game The Devil's Level is a tabletop card game where 2+ players battle life's challenges to achieve an ultimate state of Chill. (Has currently earned $96,688 of $28,800) 335% 1501 $64 02-21
Dead 'til Dawn - Zombie Survival Horror Card Game Experience a unique zombie apocalypse story line with your friends full of choices, voting, chance, alliances, combat, and betrayals! (Has currently earned $5,512 of $7,500) 73% 89 $62 02-24
Dead Men Tell No Tales: Board Game Expansion + Miniatures The Kraken game expansion and miniatures addon for Dead Men Tell No Tales cooperative board game. (Has currently earned $56,351 of $50,000) 112% 715 $79 02-15 #expansion base game
Deadly Concoctions Mix Lethal Potions. Kill Your Friends. (Has currently earned $45 of $100) 45% 1 NA 02-02
Dicetopia Dicetopia is a quick strategic board game about dominating neighbourhoods, collecting shiny dice loot and completing secret missions! (Has currently earned kr67,183 SEK of kr40,000 SEK) 167% 230 kr292 SEK 02-25
Draft City: A strategic drafting game unlike any other. Draft City needs a new Mayor! Draft from a deck of 100 unique multi-use cards to gather resources and expand the city. (Has currently earned £369 of £5,000) 7% 14 £26 02-26
Gentes - Deluxified™ Edition Tasty Minstrel Games & Game Brewer present Stephen Risthaus' "Gentes" a game about ancient civilizations- in Deluxified™ Format! (Has currently earned $251,292 of $40,000) 628% 3677 $68 02-17
GO ECO: The Classic game of survival. The card game that allows you to Attack, Defend, Kill, Protect Steal, Trap, Hack and Surrender!!. It's all happening on your tabletop! (Has currently earned $1,786 CAD of $15,000 CAD) 11% 90 $20 CAD 02-09
Handmade Artisan Hardwood Dice Sets Hand-crafted. 100% Handmade from Select Artisan Hardwoods. Unique One of a Kind Dice. (Has currently earned $346 of $150) 230% 15 $23 02-05 #dice
Ian Brody's SHAEF A two-player, card-driven World War II strategy game covering the period from June 1944 to March 1945. (Has currently earned £6,683 of £10,000) 66% 147 £45 02-07
Isles of Terror Embark on sinister adventures in this 1-4 player story-driven strategy game of exploration and conquest. (Has currently earned €53,592 of €25,000) 214% 818 €66 02-20
Ladder Ball Jr. : Table Top Fun For Everyone Face off against your friends with this compact indoor version of everyone’s favorite lawn game. First to score 21 points wins! (Has currently earned $4,182 of $6,000) 69% 80 $52 03-04
League of Seekers A Lovecraftian Grimdark tabletop RPG Set in an alternate 18th century Europe. (Has currently earned £2,432 of £1,500) 162% 131 £19 02-22 #rpg
Lucky's Misadventures - Episode 42: Lost in Oddtopia You and your dog Lucky should not have taken the shortcut through the woods that night... (Has currently earned $4,411 of $4,242) 103% 105 $42 02-24
Make 100. Play:List - a party card game of list making. Play:List is a party card game of making lists. A game you play. A game you play by making lists. Play:List. Longest list wins! (Has currently earned $17 of $10,000) 0% 1 NA 02-26 #hmm
MICRONOMICON: The Tiny Game of Terror An adorably diminutive game of massive amusement. If you are going to buy one tiny game of forbidden magic this year, make it this one! (Has currently earned $2,270 of $3,375) 67% 117 $19 02-22
Necronomicon Dice Evil Dead Set D2, D3, D4, D6, D8, D10, D12, D20 (Has currently earned €8,500 of €15,000) 56% 83 €102 03-05 #dice
Oh Cluck! - The Barnyard Brawl Oh Cluck! is a party style card game where no egg, or chicken, is safe. Taking 30-60 minutes to play, and designed for 2-6 players. (Has currently earned $1,344 of $8,000) 16% 23 $58 02-24
Payday: The Card Game Play the perfect heist and trick, trade, threaten, beg, lie, manipulate or fool with your friends to be the best criminal out of all. (Has currently earned €256 of €10,000) 2% 12 €21 02-20
PolyHero Dice - Rogue Set From the shadows rolls a PolyHero Dice Set for heroes of a more mysterious kind. Rogues, Thieves, Assassins... steal yourself a set! (Has currently earned $129,100 of $50,000) 258% 3375 $38 02-08 #dice
Rambo: The Board Game No Man, No Law, No War Can Stop RAMBO! The Tactical Mission-Based Cooperative Board Game with Unique Stealth and Fog of War Mechanics! (Has currently earned $65,270 of $50,000) 130% 560 $117 02-22
THE ART OF TOKAIDO Admire, gathered in a single work for the very first time, all of the original graphical creations that make the universe of TOKAIDO. (Has currently earned €17,761 of €20,000) 88% 253 €70 02-12 #bling
THE PIT: The Board Game A harrowing raid on the deadliest mad science facility in the galaxy! Inspired by the hit dungeon-crawler video game! (Has currently earned $14,585 CAD of $65,000 CAD) 22% 122 $120 CAD 02-23
The Scarlet Pimpernel: Signature Edition Join the Scarlet Pimpernel on his daring adventures in this beautiful new euro strategy game! (Has currently earned $51,777 of $15,000) 345% 761 $68 02-13
Treasure Towers: Expanded options for Engraved Dice Towers We're back with even more options for your dice towers. New designs, new woods, and Treasure Towers with foil designs and suede lining (Has currently earned $564 of $2,500) 22% 9 $63 02-26 #bling
UBOOT The Board Game A real-time, app-driven board game of WW2 submarine warfare. This underwater war thriller will put your skills to the ultimate test. (Has currently earned £445,693 of £65,000) 685% 6661 £67 02-15
Unicorn Poop and the Secret of the Enchanted Arcade It's a card game, filled with 80's stuff, an enchanted arcade and poop. Unicorn poop! (Has currently earned £260 of £10,000) 2% 14 £19 02-24
Valeria: Card Kingdoms - Shadowvale The next thrilling expansion - Shadowvale - introduces all new Monsters, Citizens and Domains, with a twist of classic horror. (Has currently earned $55,731 of $15,000) 371% 1555 $36 02-16 #expansion base game
Warriors In a world where warriors protect their land from invasion, to save the nation, choose a warrior and be ready to battle. (Has currently earned $58 of $2,000) 2% 1 NA 03-27
Looking for more comprehensive Kickstarter gaming information? Check out the meta listings on BGG, explore Kicktraq's data-driven views, or, of course, Kickstater's Tabletop Category.

Footnotes

  • #hmm means that something about the project seems a little off. Buyer beware kinda thing.
  • #lolwut is reserved for projects that seem like trainwrecks. Check 'em out for amusement.
  • #take tags are for projects that have been restarted for some reason, with the number indicating what iteration we're currently on.
  • Did I miss something? Particularly stuff that might go in the Comments column? Let me know and I'll add it in.
Tip Jar - Keep me in Kickstarter money.
submitted by Zelbinian to boardgames [link] [comments]

Hearts of Durasteel, Progress Report #0: The Mod So Far

Hello everyone. If you don't know already, I'm LuxLoser, lead developer for Hearts of Durasteel, a Star Wars mod for Hearts of Iron IV, a real time strategy game. You can find us at HeartsOfDurasteel, where there's a Discord link in the sidebar if you want to come join us there too. With permission from the moderators here, I figured I'd share this first progress report in this sub as well. It is meant to convey the general state of the mod and basic information. I will also be adding posts for the available leaks/declassified documents from the Discord, and the next progress report will come once the map is fully created, at least visually.
THE MAP
The map of Durasteel is a major component, as this isn't just an alternate history mod. Instead, it takes the map of Earth as we know it chucks it out, instead giving you a full map of the Star Wars Galaxy. "But how?" you might ask.
Well, the first thing we have done is create planets. They will be flat, 2-D items, representative of the planet as a whole. Think of it as a top-down view of a flattened globe, and the march of troops around the planet represents control of a certain region, of the southern hemisphere, of the large sea, of the mines, etc. The small provinces within the planets mean that planets aren't just one time battles but at times lengthy campaigns. Events during battles will also help make up for the limitations we have in depicting interstellar ground warfare. Planets that have no importance or are inhospitable and not valuable won't be depicted. Instead it is 'major' world displayed, not a star system. Various moons and satellites, however, are displayed near the planet, and important systems within the same system are placed close to one another.
Here is a look at the map layout, though it is, of course, constantly being updated. And here is an example of a planet and moon.
When we first started testing this idea in practice, the map looked like this. From there we did more refinement and ended up with this. You'll notice it very much looks like a bunch of islands in a very open sea. Technically, that's what it will always be, but we want to simulate the idea of a simplified map of space. We are still refining it, but the biggest things we tackled were: 1. the reflection of clouds, 2. waves and sea texture, 3. a space background. The reflection issue was easy enough, and we were able to figure out how to put in a background (admittedly still darkened and desaturated) not long after. But the issue of waves persisted. However, not long ago, we hit a break through and were able to remove the waves.
Here is the physical map as it exists presently. Here is a look at Coruscant and its moons and 'orbit tile'. And finally, here is a close up of Alderaan and a look at the stand-in "planetary ocean", which is blue mountains. We're still looking into improving the look.
We still have on the map agenda: 1. The sun. There is a light glare on the 'ocean' we are looking into disabling. 2. Improving the color of the background 3. Creating a proper, detailed space background with fairly accurate stars and easy to see hyperlanes 4. Improving planetary ocean look 5. Improving the height map to remove the rough look of the 'islands'
NATIONS
A lot less to cover here as I just want to clarify a few things. Firstly, we are not going for a plan of “every planet a tag.” Instead, while we do have plans for a number of tags, the approach is to have at game start, a large nation in the form of the Galactic Republic. The Republic will not be entirely united, with regions moving away from the Republic shown as separate puppets. This is a sort of narrative tool, as it shows that while some regions within the Republic have their own agendas, they believe in the Republic and respect its government. Near the Republic will be the CIS, focused on Serenno led by Dooku, at this point a growing movement that rejects the Republic government. The corporate states that he is enticing will be shown as moving away until the Battle of Geonosis comes and lines are drawn in the sand. The CIS will swell and the war will begin. The Neutral Systems will spawn not long after, refusing to accept either side of the conflict as their sovereign. Alongside all of this will be the Hutts and the Chiss. The former will be a large but fractured group, each of the leader of the Cartel having their own demesne. And the Chiss will be sitting in isolation, content on tackling their own issues. So, at the start there will be only a few nations available.
Why? Well the reason this mod is being made with Hearts of Iron IV is the unique way in which the event chains and the focus trees can be used to tell a story for a nation. Our objective is in taking Star Wars and allowing the player to craft their story. Fewer tags, more paths, more branches to the stories. Some of those stories will include switching to a different tag of a new nation, others will not. That the story is logical, sensible, and that the ways it affects the galaxy are cohesive is what will be important. Because Star Wars isn’t just some science fiction setting. It’s a Space Opera, a dramatic saga of heroes and villains, of the rise and fall of nations, of legends and myths, of prophecy and legacy. While we want to give the player choice, we have to be careful not to give total freedom. The massive conspiracies, intertwining stories, the presence of the Force, and the overarching themes of Star Wars mean that you can’t just be a rogue agent. There will be consequences, events that transpire because of things beyond your control. I want each playthrough to feel like it has a narrative, a story told in an unconventional medium. When you click “Senator Amidala dies!” I want it to be a little more than just an event that changes your focus tree and gives you some political power loss. I want the events that unfold, the war that ensues, the future that is written to feel like it was destined, not just random occurrences bumping into each other. That was a bit of an avant-garde rant there, but hopefully you’ll know what I mean as things progress.
But the question you might still have on tags is, “Well what about later on?” And that is more than fair. Ultimately there will be a number of tags, but mostly regional, with a few planets collected together around regional leaders. Forming each will take specific circumstances. So why not every world a tag? Well it also helps to demonstrate my personal view on how an interstellar nation functions on a greater scale. Namely, some systems are effectively “swept under the rug”. Due to the distance from major trade routes, economic capacity, population disparity, and military size, the neighbors of larger worlds are going to rally behind regional leaders, due in part to being just unable to stand alone. Worlds like Alderaan and Corellia, while having separate representatives than their neighboring systems, would have such sway and hegemony that the only reason their neighbors wouldn’t vote with them as a block is personal politics, and even that is more like one region being more liberal than another within one state and so electing a different party to the shared delegation than the others. But if the Republic were to just be dissolved, Alderaan’s neighbors, despite political differences, would be forced to work together, and work with Alderaan, to survive. This is partly due to the needs of a population accustomed to an economy where resources are practically infinite due to the shared resources of so many worlds in the galaxy. Unless a planet wanted to become an austere hermit kingdom, they have to work with more powerful neighbors. The materials used for infrastructure, the energy sources, the technological grids, the economic sectors, everything on a planet would be accustomed to what was available on the galactic market as a whole. Doonitum is common is some areas, but may be utterly unavailable on a planet. However, their security fleet is still made with doontium hulls, despite the metal not existing on their worlds. So unless they want their planet invaded and crushed, they need a doontium trade to survive.
The other component leading to regional leadership is how space travel works in Star Wars. Hyperspace Routes, planned paths of transit, and the perils of ‘rough space’ via nebulas and asteroid belts and so on, means it’s almost like Earth before air travel. If you’re far from a main route, ships will need to go through perilous, uncharted regions. Even before making that journey, if you’re an isolated world far from any routes, ships are first going to jump to the nearest planet close to a safe Hyperspace route. Imagine you’re a town near Florence in 13th Century Italy. Traders go to Florence on the main road before trying to reach you, and if it’s too much risk, you’re better off sending your own traders into Florence before they return. Say you’re on a minor road, one that branches off of the southern road to Florence. You want goods from north of Florence? Then you’re reliant on Florentine traders bringing it. And when war comes? You’ll need the Florentine army to hold off invaders. And so, despite disliking Florence, having your own culture, traditions, and political views, your town is under the jurisdiction of the Florentine city-state. Replace Florence with Corellia and Corellian and you see that due to the nature of hyper-space transit and the constrictions of moving through space itself, history has almost become cyclical for these minor worlds. Not to mention that as this situation persists, Corellian culture, ideals, and people would seep in, until what you have most in common with other minor world near Corellia is just Corellian you all are!
On a less philosophical or artistic note, let’s be honest. You really want to try to manage a game where you’re the faction leader of 50 minor nations, all with their own AIs? It would be a nightmare, especially when the war starts and each AI tries to command its own troops. And a major city on a planet falls? Rather than just lose some war score you can regain as your troops on the moons or nearby work to reclaim it, you instead get “THE WELSH UNION HAS CAPITULATED,” giving your enemies free reign in the territory, a huge hit to score, and the cession of control of worlds despite losing little on them.
IDEOLOGIES
This will be getting a separate post soon as well.
Durasteel presently has 11 set ideologies, with a 12th being in discussion in the form of “Grayism”, or “Neutralist”, meaning a state under the control of Gray Jedi. However, this is not yet set. Some of these ideologies, like New Order, the sides of the Force, and to some degree Akaan’adocrat, come from Star Wars canon or from Legends. But Star Wars has always been vague on its politics, leaving to us flexibility and creativity in developing coherent ideologies for gameplay.
Each ideology in the image has a definition but I want to elaborate on that definition here.
RESOURCES
Lastly, we have also begun implementing new resources into the mod. None of these are made up, though some lean more into Legends, as that continuity provides more detail in terms of military supplies. These are as follows, and in order on the screen:
Alright well that’s most of what I wanted to address in this report, giving everyone an awareness of where the mod is at in terms of development. Hopefully we can have more regular Progress Reports, but with University, work, and other projects that devs are involved with, we’re trying our best to move as quick as we can. Thank you all for your support.
Vode An!
submitted by LuxLoser to starwarsgames [link] [comments]

Petite analyse détaillée des principales cryptomonnaies

Bonjour,
voici un résumé avec mon avis sur quelques cryptomonnaies intéressantes du top 50, avec mon avis sur chacune d'entre elle. Certaines ont des sources (en français) qui vous permettront de creuser un peu. N'hésitez pas à donner votre avis pour améliorecompléter ce tour d'horizon :)
Bitcoin (XBT) : or numérique Montant maximum : 21 millions de bitcoins (actuellement : autour de 16,5 millions). C'est la cryptomonnaie la plus ancienne, la plus solide et la plus répandue. Elle représente à elle seule la moitié de la capitalisation totale des cryptomonnaies, et elle sert souvent d'intermédiaire entre deux autres cryptomonnaies. Elle a 9 ans et sa conception n'a jamais été mise en défaut. C'est la cryptomonnaie actuellement la moins risquée des cryptos, au moins à moyen terme (quelques années) - ce qui ne veut pas dire qu'elle est sans risque ! Mon avis : Selon moi le bitcoin a un vrai avenir sur tout ce qui est transactions entre personne genre virements bancaires ou éventuellement paiements de grande valeur, mais pas vraiment pour les achats du quotidien : dans l'état actuel de la technologie, le bitcoin a un problème de "scabilité" (possibilité de faire de très nombreuses transactions par seconde). Plusieurs innovations sont attendues en 2018 pour améliorer ce point, notamment le Lightning Network qui permettrait de décharger une partie des transactions. Côté investissement, n'importe quel portefeuille que vous vous ferez devrait contenir des bitcoins. La proportion dépend du risque que vous souhaitez prendre mais 1/3 à 2/3 de votre portefeuille semble une fourchette raisonnable.
Ethereum (ETH) : plate-forme de smart contracts Montant maximum : pas de maximum (actuellement : presque 100 millions) Cette cryptomonnaie a été créé en 2015, avec à sa tête Vitalik Butlerin, un développeur reconnu dans la communauté. L'ethereum a un intérêt fondamental par rapport au bitcoin et autres cryptos similaires : il permet d'exécuter des "smarts contracts", c'est à dire des bouts de code. Cela a un potentiel d'applications beaucoup plus large que le bitcoin, et a même lancé une nouvelle génération de cryptomonnaies. Par ailleurs, elle est soutenue par quelques grosses entreprises, regroupées au sein de l'Ethereum Alliance - même si rien ne garantie que ces entreprises vont effectivement utiliser l'ethereum et non pas leur propre cryptomonnaies à l'avenir... Mon avis : Malgré un risque supérieur à celui du bitcoin, ça me semble être une cryptomonnaie qui a un intérêt potentiel important, et donc pourrait devenir une technologie réellement disruptive. Les smarts contracts ont pour énorme avantage d'être infalsifiables ("code is law") - ce qui a d'ailleurs déjà eu de fâcheuses conséquences (cf Ethereum Classic, voir ci-dessous) et continue à en avoir (une erreur dans un smart contract de Parity durant l'été 2017 a gelé des centaines de milliers d'éther)... Malgré ce potentiel énorme, beaucoup reste à faire et à développer, et certains commencent à se plaindre du statut "Work In Progress"/"Proof of Concept" qui semble durer. Certains pensent d'ailleurs que sa valeur est trop élevée par rapport à sa valeur fondamentale : on n'utilise pas vraiment l'éther comme cryptomonnaie, mais comme support pour les smarts contracts, surtout que sa valeur est actuellement portée par l'essort des ICO (Initial Coin Offering). Pour creuser : Vidéo d'ArtPlay sur Ethereum .
Ripple (XRP) : la crypto des banques Montant maximum : environ 100 milliards (actuellement : environ 38 milliards) - il s'agit d'une crypto déflationniste (i.e., le nombre total de ripple diminue avec le temps). 6 milliards sont également détenus par les créateurs, et le reste est placé en "Escrow" Cette cryptomonnaie existe depuis quelques années déjà, avec des premiers concepts datant de 2004. Son but est de réduire des taux de changes entre n'importe quelle monnaie du monde, en passant par le Ripple comme monnaie intermédiaire. La gestion est cependant centralisée, ce qui est différent de la plupart des autres cryptomonnaies ; mais cela peut être considéré comme un avantage pour les banques traditionnelles. Ripple a noué des partenariats importants (American Express en novembre 2017, ou la fondation Bill and Melinda Gates, par exemple), qui montre un réel intérêt du monde de la finance "classique". Cette cryptomonnaie est "pseudo-décentralisée" : la validation des noeuds est confiée à un certain nombre d'acteur sélectionnés à l'avance. Mon avis : C'est une idée intéressante, et son positionnement particulier par rapport aux autres cryptomonnaies (ne servir que d'intermédiaire) en fera peut-être son succès. Le principe des taux de change n'est pas spécifique au ripple mais c'est un bon angle marketing. Quelques zones d'ombre déplaisent cependant à la communauté crypto, notamment l'aspect pseudo-décentralisé qui va à l'encontre de la philosophie générale des cryptomonnaies, et le grand nombre de ripple détenu par l'équipe de développement, donc on ne sait pas comment ils vont être utilisés. Pour creuser : Vidéo de Blocs sur Ripple .
Ethereum Classic (ETC) : clone d'ethereum voué à l'échec Montant maximum : pas de maximum (actuellement : presque 100 millions) En 2016, une faille a été découverte par des hackers dans un smart contract (un DAO) basé sur Ethereum (donc non lié au code Ethereum lui-même). Cela a permis un vol historique de plusieurs millions de dollars. L'équipe de développement et l'écrasante majorité des utilisateurs ont accepté de réécrire la blockchain pour annuler le vol. Cela a nécessité un hard fork, qui est devenu le nouvel Ethereum. Une petite partie de la communauté a cependant considéré que l’intervention humaine pour décider où l’argent était n’était pas “éthique”, même si cela impliquait une perte d’argent par des investisseurs n’ayant pas suffisamment fait attention à ce qu’ils faisaient de leurs tokens, et qu’il fallait donc garder une blockchain “non manipulée”, c’est devenu l’Ethereum Classic (ETC). Tous les possesseurs d'ETH ont donc eu la même quantité d'ETC. Mon avis : Personnellement, je refuse de soutenir cette cryptomonnaie pour des raisons philosophiques. C'est un pur produit de spéculation, et je n'y vois peu d'avenir concret. Pour creuser, un message d'un ancien participant au projet ETC, qui montre un peu les dessous de cette cryptomonnaie et pourquoi il faut sérieusement s'en méfier
Bitcoin Cash (BCH) : clone du bitcoin hostile au bitcoin Montant maximum : 21 millions de bitcoins (actuellement : autour de 16,5 millions). Comme pour l'ETC avec l'Ethereum, il s'agit d'une copie du bitcoin suite à un hard fork. Le problème de base est la scabilité, c'est à dire le nombre de transactions que l'on peut faire passer à la seconde. Le bitcoin est très encombré actuellement, ce qui augmente les frais de transaction de manière vertigineuse (il faut payer cher pour être sûr que sa transaction va être effectuée). Pour régler ce problème, plusieurs solutions existe. Le Lightning Network, proposée par les développeurs "historiques" du bitcoin n'est pas encore prêt. Des mineurs ont décidé de lancer leur propre blockchain, avec une taille de bloc de transaction 8 fois plus grande qu'actuellement, et une difficulté de minage mise à jour plus rapidement. Mon avis : Le Bitcoin Cash a été lancée face au bitcoin de manière "hostile", avec pour intention claire de remplacer celui-ci. La solution retenue (augmenter la taille des blocs de transaction) n'est que temporaire et ne règlera pas le problème, qui nécessite une vraie rupture technologique. Il y a eu beaucoup d'hostilité, de désinformation et de délit d'initié de la part de cette cryptomonnaie. Comme pour l'ETC, je refuse de soutenir cette cryptomonnaie pour des raisons philosophiques. Pour creuser : Vidéo de Blocs sur Bitcoin Cash .
Litecoin (LTC) : clone du bitcoin en un peu plus rapide Montant maximum : 84 millions (actuellement : environ 49 millions) Il s'agit d'une cryptomonnaie similaire au bitcoin, avec quelques petits avantages, genre un minage plus facile et un temps de validation des transactions plus court. L'équipe de développement, dont Charlie Lee est la figure la plus connue, a l'air solide, et arrive à implémenter des nouveautés (avec succès) plus facilement que le bitcoin. Mon avis : Il y a peu de chances que cette cryptomonnaie supplante le bitcoin, étant donné que malgré ses avantages, elle n'a pas réussi à supplanter le bitcoin depuis son lancement il y a 5 ans. Cependant vous ne prendrez pas beaucoup de risque non plus en investissant dans cette crypto.. Pour creuser : Vidéo de Renan sur Litecoin .
Cardano (ADA) : nouveau concurrent de Bitcoin Montant maximum : 45 milliards d'ADA. Lancée le 1er octobre 2017, cette crypto a fait une entrée remarquée dans le top 10 des cryptos en 2 mois à peine. Il se démarque de ses concurrents par le fait d'être développés par des universitaires. Il s'agit d'une plateforme de smart contracts. La validation se fait par proof-of-stake, c'est à dire dépendamment du nombre d'ADA possédés, et non pas par proof-of-work comme le bitcoin. Le modèle de gouvernance se fait par un certain nombre d'élus qui décident de l'évolution de la crypto. Mon avis : la crypto semble avoir des bases solides, et le modèle de gouvernance est intéressant, plus souple que bitcoin sans être centralisé de manière quasi immuable par de gros acteurs comme ripple. On peut le voir comme un futur challenger de Bitcoin.
Monero/Dash/Zcash (XMDASH/Zcash) : cryptos anonymes Ces cryptomonnaies ont en commun d'avoir un principe similaire au bitcoin, mais avec un accent donné sur l'anonymat. Cela peut être intéressant pour plusieurs types de publics, et donc peuvent devenir une alternative viable. Pour information, le Monero et le Dash, avec le bitcoin et l'ethereum, étaient acceptés sur AlphaBay (le principal site web de ventes illégales, dont la drogue, sur le web avant sa fermeture). Les équipes de développement ont l'air solides pour les trois. Mon avis : Ces cryptomonnaies ont un réel intérêt par rapport au bitcoin. J'aurais cependant du mal à dire laquelle est la plus intéressante entre les trois. Le Dash a une meilleure communication, Monero est plus "artisanal" mais plus solide techniquement, Zcash a un potentiel de développement plus élevé. Pour creuser: Vidéo de Blocs sur Monero . Pour creuser: Vidéo d'ArtPlay sur Dash .
NEM (XEM) : crypto asiatique Montant maximum : 9 millions (actuellement : 9 millions) C'est une cryptomonnaie visant essentiellement un public asiatique. C'est une cryptomonnaie soutenue par de grosses banques et institutions japonaises, ce qui peut contribuer à son succès. Sa valeur a explosé en quelques mois. Mon avis : Cette crypto a du succès, mais comme on en entend moins parler dans le monde occidental, il est plus difficile de se faire un avis objectif.
IOTA (MIOTA) : crypto pas encore fonctionnelle destinée à l'internet des objets C'est une cryptomonnaie visant à faire des micropaiements dans le monde de l'internet des objets. Cela représente une technologie réellement "disruptive". Un point intéressant de cette crypto est la scabilité (c'est à dire la possibilité de développement à grande échelle), assurée par construction même : pour chaque transaction effectuée avec le IOTA, il faut valider 2 transactions au préalable. Mon avis : L'internet des objets a un grand avenir, et cette idée semble séduisante. Lors de son lancement, sa capitalisation a directement dépassé le milliard de dollars. La technologie n'est cependant pas encore au point, et la validation de transactions comme préalable à chaque nouvelle transactions est certes un mécanisme intéressant, mais qui n'a jamais été testé. Il faut voir si c'est une technologie sérieuse et sécuritaire.
Stratis (STRAT) : créez votre propre blockchain Il s'agit d'une start-up proposant à des entreprises d'implémenter la technologie blockchain pour elles. Elle permettra de faire de la programmation en C#, un langage de programmation répandu. C'est un marché porteur, la technologie blockchain ayant un avenir certain, et Stratis est l'une des premières entreprises positionnées sur ce marché. Mon avis: Le potentiel de croissance futur dépend de la qualité de cette entreprise. Pour l'instant elle s'en sort plutôt bien Pour creuser: Vidéo de Blocs sur Stratis .
EOS (EOS) : smart contracts gratuits EOS sert de plateformes à smart contracts, un peu comme Ethereum. Mais à l'invers de celui-ci, EOS garantit des transactions gratuites, et les promoteurs promettent de pouvoir gérer des millions de transactions par seconde. Cette crypto a un lancement particulier et pour l'instant unique : au lieu de mettre en vente tous les tokens d'un coup comme c'est généralement le cas, ils en mettent un 1/365e chaque jour pendant 1 an (après une vente initiale). Mon avis: Le pari est risqué mais valable. Le format particulier de son ICO fait qu'on a le temps de voir comment le projet évolue et si l'équipe est solide - ce qui est un gage de confiance.
NEO/Waves/Omni/Nxt/Bitshares/Counterparty (ANS/WAVES/OMNI/NXT/BTS/XCP) : smart contracts alternatifs Ces cryptomonnaies ont un concept similaire à Ethereum, c'est à dire d'être une plateforme pour des smart contracts. Mais elles ont moins de succès: parmi les 50 assets les plus populaires, 43 sont basées sur Ethereum, 4 sont basés sur Omni, 1 sur Nxt, 1 sur Waves, 1 sur NEO... Mon avis : pour l'instant ces cryptomonnaies ont moins de succès que Ethereum, mais ça pourrait changer avec NEO ou Waves qui ont eu beaucoup de succès récemment. Omni et Nxt ont à peu près le même âge que Ethereum donc je doute de leur succès. Je ne connais pas bien les deux derniers. Pour creuser : Vidéo de Blocs sur NEO .
Iconomi (ICN) : jouez à la bourse dans le monde des cryptos Cette cryptomonnaie vise à créer des outils de trading comme en bourse : portefeuille de valeurs, indices, etc. L'idée est d'acheter des tokens de cette cryptomonnaie, sachant que l'argent sera investi sur d'autres cryptomonnaies et suivra leur valeur. L'équipe de développement a l'air sérieuse et a sorti mi-2017 le premier volet de son projet (le ICNX) Mon avis : C'est une bonne idée si vous ne voulez ou pouvez pas passer trop de temps à suivre le détail du marché - activité hautement chronophage...
Golem (GNT) : louez votre puissance de calcul Cette cryptomonnaie représente des tokens pour louer de la puissance de calcul. Le principe est que si l'on a besoin de beaucoup de puissance de calcul pour un projet particulier (calcul en laboratoire, rendu 3D dans un film d'animation, etc), on passe un contrat sur la blockchain pour effectuer ces calculs, distribué entre de nombreuses machines, sans passer par des machines hyper puissantes (comme le projet [email protected], pour ceux qui connaissent). Notez que la rémunération de ceux qui ont participé au calcul se base sur un système de loterie pour diminuer les coûts de transaction. Mon avis : L'idée est séduisante, et c'est probablement l'un des projets les plus solides, car on peut avoir une idée de sa valeur fondamentale, en comparant aux services existants de cloud computing (Amazon ou Microsoft). Mais c'est paradoxalement l'un de ses défauts : sa valeur ne grimpera probablement pas à des sommets car sa valeur fondamentale pouvant être grossièrement estimée, sa valeur d'échange ne devrait pas trop s'en éloigner. Par ailleurs, le revenu tiré de la puissance de calcul par Golem sera toujours comparé au revenu potentiel du minage, et sera probablement comparable.
AuguGnosis (REP/GNO) : pariez sur l'avenir Ces deux projets, relativement similaires, proposent de faire des paris sur l'avenir grâce à des smarts contracts, un peu comme chez les brokers à Londres. Ils se basent sur la fameuse "sagesse des foules" : si on demande à un grand nombre de gens de faire une estimation (par exemple, le nombre de boules dans une boite), alors la valeur moyenne sera souvent très proche de la vraie valeur. Il y a un certain nombre d'hypothèses pour que cela fonctionne, notamment que les gens font des estimations indépendantes (ils ne discutent pas entre eux, sinon ils s'influencent) et non biaisées, ce qui est en pratique difficile. Mon avis : Ce sont des projets intéressants, qui peuvent faire connaitre le monde de la blockchain au grand public - tout comme on donne parfois les estimations des brokers anglais pour le résultat d'une élection ou un match de foot. Je n'ai pas trouvé leurs plateformes de pari vraiment claires, mais j'imagine que ça va s'améliorer avec le temps.
Dogecoin (DOGE) : clone rigolo du bitcoin Montant maximum : pas de maximum (actuellement : presque 110 milliards) Un clone du bitcoin dont les possesseurs cherchent surtout à faire augmenter sans limite sa valeur (leur slogan : "to the moon!"). Mon avis : une cryptomonnaie qui n'a pas beaucoup d'intérêt à part pour son symbole marrant (une tête de chien). Sérieusement.
GameCredits/MobileGo/FirstBlood (GAME, MGO, FIRST) : les cryptos des jeux vidéos Ces cryptomonnaies se concentrent dans le monde du jeu vidéo, selon trois marchés : la vente dématérialisée "à la Steam" (plutôt pour GameCredits), les micropaiements dans le jeux mobiles (plutôt pour MobileGo) et les paris sur les tournois de jeux vidéos (plutôt pour FirstBlood). Chacun de ces marchés a un grand potentiel ; la grande question est de savoir si ces acteurs vont réussir à s'imposer. Cela dépend plus de la qualité des entreprises que de la cryptomonnaie en elle-même. Mon avis : Ces cryptomonnaies sont dignes d'être suivies, vu le potentiel du marché. Mais je pense personnellement que ces cryptomonnaies doivent venir des acteurs historiques du marché (Steam, Electronic Arts, Blizzard...), déjà bien implantés avec des plateformes solides, plutôt que d'extérieurs qui doivent s'imposer. La tendance actuelle est de se rapprocher du e-sport, encore sous-développé.
CIVIC (CVC) : identifiez-vous et authentifiez-vous grâce à la blockchain Cette cryptomonnaie s'intéresse aux concepts d'identité. Ils proposent de faire des vérifications d'identité avec une validation sur la blockchain : par exemple, un site web, au lieu de demander une pièce d'identité et une preuve de domicile, pourrait simplement demander une confirmation dans la blockchain CIVIC que son client est bien celui qu'il croit être. Cette demande serait monnayée avec le token CIVIC. Leur ICO a été très particulière : le nombre de tokens mis en circulation était limité et avait un mécanisme pour avoir un maximum d'utilisateurs plutôt que pour lever le maximum d'argent possible - ce qui est très cohérent avec le projet. Mon avis : un super projet, et l'équipe semble bien tenir la route. Certains s'inquiètent du côté "Big Brother" de cette technologie - toutes les infos personnelles sont stockés sur un registre - mais le projet est en tout cas tout à fait cohérent avec le potentiel de la technologie blockchain.
InsureX (IXT) : assurez-vous grâce à la blockchain Il s'agit d'un smart contract avec assurance - c'est à dire que l'on s'assure pour un risque (par exemple : le bitcoin descend en-dessous de 20000 euros avant le 1er septembre). Le "smart contract" permet de s'assurer que le contrat sera exécuté quoi qu'il arrive. Mon avis : l'idée est bonne, c'est même la base des smart contracts, mais cela arrive selon moi trop tôt : le monde des cryptomonnaies est encore jeune et peu mature, et je vois mal une adoption même partielle d'assurances sur une blockchain. Mais le projet est à suivre quand même.
TenX, TokenCard, Monaco, WireX/Xapo (PAY,TKN, MCO, ???) : cartes bancaires cryptos Ces projets visent à pouvoir dépenser ses cryptomonnaies avec une carte bancaire. L'idée est bonne, car ça permet d'être peu affecté par les taux de change variables entre pays - par contre, on est très affecté par la volatilité des cours des cryptomonnaies. Plusieurs entreprises se sont lancées sur cette idée, il reste à voir laquelle s'en sortira le mieux, et si cela a réellement un intérêt pour les paiements du quotidien. Mon avis : C'est une idée qui permet d'utiliser réellement ses cryptos, plutôt que de les utiliser uniquement à des fins de spéculation. Cependant, ce marché est encore jeune : par exemple, début janvier, la plupart des cartes bancaires ont été désactivées, car elles passaient par un intermédiaire du nom de WaveCrest qui a vu ses activités stoppées par VISA.
Basic Attention Token (BAT) : alternative payante à la publicité sur internet Ces tokens vont de pair avec un navigateur, Brave. Ce navigateur a du succès actuellement, notamment grâce à sa capacité native de bloquer les publicités (comme adBlock ou uOrigin), ce qui en plus accélérerait le chargement des pages web. Le modèle derrière propose d'accepter certaines publicités, d'être rémunéré pour le visionnage via un pourcentage sur le coût de la publicité, et ce sous forme de tokens BAT. Le lancement du BAT a été un énorme succès, avec 35 millions de $ en tokens vendus en 30 secondes. Mon avis : une belle idée. Cela repose sur plusieurs inconnues cependant : l'adoption massive du navigateur Brave (malgré son succès croissant, sa part de marché reste faible) ; arriver à mettre le mécanisme de partage de rémunération avec les utilisateurs ; être sûr que le montant des rémunérations soit suffisantes, etc. Si toutes ces conditions sont remplies, l'intérêt est fort. Personnellement, je préfère attendre un peu pour voir l'évolution.
Tether (USDT) : vaut 1 US$ ou moins Cette cryptomonnaie a été crée comme valeur refuge : 1 USDT est censé valoir 1 US$. Tant que la conversion USDT/US$ est possible, cela revient au même d'avoir l'un ou l'autre. Cependant, comme cette conversion n'est pas toujours possible, les gens préfèrent avoir des US$, que l'on peut utiliser partout : ainsi, la valeur d'1 USDT est en pratique légèrement inférieure à celle d'1 US$. Mon avis : Le concept permet de retirer des fonds en USD - en attendant de les réinvestir - sans devoir payer les taxes sur les gains financiers. Selon moi c'est plutôt pour les citoyens américains qui sont taxés assez strictement pour les gains financiers. Par ailleurs, l'entreprise derrière les USDT injecte régulièrement des nouveaux tokens, et de nombreuses rumeurs doutent de la capacité de l'entreprise à avoir des stocks suffisants pouvoir échanger un nombre appréciable USDT contre des USD si les possesseurs le demandaient. Méfiance !
Bitconnect Coin (BCC) : Arnaque à la Madoff Montant maximum : 28 millions de bitconnect coins (actuellement : autour de 6,5 millions). Cette crypto a beaucoup de similarités avec le bitcoin, sa principale particularité est de proposer des échanges d'utilisateur à utilisateur, sans passer par une plateforme d'échange. Par ailleurs, elle utilise une combinaison de Proof-Of-Stake (POS) et Proof-Of-Work (POW). En clair, pour valider une transaction, au lieu de se baser sur la puissance de calcul du validateur (POW), on se base sur la quantité de cryptomonnaie qu'il possède (POS). Sur le principe, cela pourrait sauver beaucoup de puissance de calcul ; mais la vulnérabilité de cette technique est moins assurée. Ils proposent aussi un intérêt très élevé si vous épargnez vos BCC (jusqu'à 1%/jour, soit 90% par an !). Mon avis : attention, malgré cette présentation, selon la grosse majorité des personnes - moi inclus -, il s'agit d'une escroquerie. Les indices sont en effet nombreux : aucune présentation des membres de l'équipe sur le site officiel ou l'annonce de lancement sur bitcointalk ; un taux d'intérêt délirant ; un système spéculatif douteux : les utilisateurs achètent des BCC directement aux développeurs, et comme les intérêts sont très élevés, ils les vendent rarement. Donc les développeurs sont les principaux bénéficiaires (ils attendent probablement que le cours soit au plus haut pour disparaitre dans la nature). Si vous mettez le moindre satoshi là-dedans, faut s'attendre à le voir disparaitre à n'importe quel moment. Vous voilà prévenu. Pour creuser: Vidéo d'Hasheur sur Bitconnect .
Komodo (KMD) : plateforme décentralisée d'ICO, basée sur Bitcoin Montant maximum : ? (actuellement : autour de 100 millions). Komodo est une cryptomonnaie assez difficile à résumer, le projet est plutôt gros. Komodo est à la fois une monnaie, une plateforme et un système de smart contracts. Parmi ses caractéristiques les plus intéressantes de Komodo, c'est le lancement futur d'une plateforme d'ICO un peu similaire à Ethereum, "Monaize". Celle-ci sera notamment décentralisée et anonyme. Par ailleurs, le Komodo ne vise pas à remplacer le Bitcoin, mais au contraire se base sur celui-ci : au lieu de sécuriser sa blockchain de manière indépendante grâce à ses propres mineurs, Komodo va faire valider sa blockchain par Bitcoin. Il y a aussi un système d'"atomic swap", une fonctionnalité qui permet de faire l'échange de 2 cryptos instantanément et sans frais. Enfin, Komodo fait partie d'un écosystème de cryptomonnaie en développement, SuperNet. Mon avis : Le projet est intéressant, ambitieux et réaliste. J'apprécie le fait qu'il se base sur Bitcoin plutôt que d'essayer de remplacer celui-ci : Bitcoin ne disparaitra pas à court ou moyen terme, sa blockchain est solide, donc cela me parait judicieux de "profiter" de ses avantages. Une nouvelle plateforme d'ICO est aussi appréciable, même si le secteur est "concurrentiel". Ceci dit, le marketing n'est pas terrible - mais cela peut signifier de bonnes opportunités d'investissement à l'heure actuelle, le temps que ça se développe. On en est encore au début, il faut voir comment ça évolue ! Pour creuser: Vidéo d'ArtPlay sur Komodo .
Siacoin, Storj, MaidSafeCoin (SIA, STORJ, MAID) : louez votre espace disque L'idée de ces cryptomonnaies est de faire du cloud-storage grâce à la blockchain. En gros, si vous avez besoin d'espace de stockage, vous pouvez mettre vos données sur le cloud, qui seront redistribuées parmi les participants, avec une rémunération par cryptomonnaie. Cela ressemble à Google Drive ou Dropbox, sans l'aspect centralisé. L'un des enjeux est la confidentialité des donnes. Mon avis : un concept intéressant, même si ça m'enthousiasme moins que les projets de cloud-computing basés sur la blockchain. Cela peut marcher si on a plus confiance dans la confidentialité du cloud-computing par blockchain que celui proposé par des entreprises dédiées. Parmi les différents projets, le Siacoin a l'air d'être le plus solide, avec des mises à jour régulières et une roadmap respectée.
Electroneum (ETN) : utilisez votre smartphone pour miner Cette cryptomonnaie a lancé une ICO avec beaucoup de succès en octobre 2017 (dans les 40 millions de dollars). Le principe, c'est de proposer de faire du mining avec son téléphone. Les téléphones sont évidemment beaucoup moins puissants que les ordinateurs, mais le but est de proposer une application simple, que n'importe qui peut télécharger. Ainsi, cela pourrait convaincre des gens de rentrer dans l'écosystème des cryptomonnaies grâce à une friction très faible. Cette cryptomonnaie pourrait ensuite servir à des jeux mobiles, des paiements comme chez Uber, etc. Mon avis: le point fort des développeurs, c'est la communication, ils la font bien. Mais cette cryptomonnaie repose sur deux (gros) risques : va-t-on réussir à attirer de nouveaux utilisateurs par ce biais ? Et : sur quelle application concrète cela va-t-il déboucher ? Par ailleurs, l'équipe ne semble pas hyper solide niveau technique. Enfin, le minage sur mobile, si l'on en croit le whitepaper, ne fera que "simuler" du vrai minage, donc les fondamentaux semblent douteux.
Steemit (STEEM) : soyez rémunérés pour vos productions populaires Cette cryptomonnaie est destinée à récompenser la production de contenus populaires sur la plateforme "Steem" (à ne pas confondre avec Steam). Cette plateforme permet de publier des contenus sous différentes formes : texte (comme un blog), vidéo (comme Youtube), messages courts (comme Twitter)... Les visiteurs peuvent ensuite approuver un contenu qu'ils apprécient, avec un poids variable selon leur réputation dans la communauté ; le producteur du contenu recevra une rémunération en Steem. Notez que les contenus textes sont stockés sur la blockchain du projet (n'écrivez pas de bêtises, elles seront gravées dans le marbre !) Mon avis : c'est une façon originale de rémunérer les producteurs de contenus de qualité - même si ça peut favoriser les contenus "populaires" plutôt que "de qualité", mais ceci dépasse le cadre des cryptomonnaies. Ce projet a un usage réel et ludique qui font son succès, mais a deux écueils importants : il est basé sur une plateforme unique, d'où des problèmes de centralisation ; et il a un fort côté inflationniste, car le nombre de tokens augmente fortement avec le temps (une multiplication par deux par année, en moyenne), et cela fait douter de la viabilité du modèle à long terme. Pour creuser: Vidéo d'Hasheur sur Steemit .
Lisk (LSK) : smart contracts codés en javascript Lisk est une plateforme pour smart contracts. Son avantage, c'est que les smart contracts sont codés dans un langage proche du javascript, c'est à dire un langage connu depuis de nombreuses années et facile d'utilisation, plutôt qu'un nouveau langage à apprendre comme pour Ethereum (Solidity). Selon les concepteurs, cela devrait faciliter la création de nouveaux smart contracts. Mon avis: Les smart contracts sont actuellement le principal point faible, niveau sécurité, dans l'écosystème. Faire un effort d'accessibilité pour écrire les smart contracts est une bonne chose, car plus les smarts contracts sont faciles à relire par le grand public, plus on peut avoir confiance (plutôt que de devoir se fier à quelques développeurs hyper spécialisés). Mais il faut aussi que les smart contracts soient correctement audités avant d'être déployés. Pour l'instant le langage n'est pas encore prêt, mais on peut s'attendre à une belle hausse au moment de la release officielle.
Einsteinium (EMC2) : la science pour les nuls Voici une crypto qui veut être la crypto "scientifique" du milieu, et a choisi un nom et un sigle rigolos et qui sonnent "scientifique" au grand public. Les concepteurs annoncent vouloir financer des projets scientifiques avec les fonds levés, et la rentabilité de ceux-ci permettra de financer les futurs projets. Mon avis: Pour avoir travaillé dans le milieu de la science, ce projet n'a aucun d'intérêt. Afin d'être rentables, les projets financés seront des projets destinés à être rentables à court terme, et pas les plus intéressants. Et ces projets qui sont censés être rentables auraient de toutes façon trouvé des fonds pour se lancer dans tous les cas, donc pourquoi passer par Einsteinium ? Probablement pour lever plus de fonds que nécessaire. Et je pense que les projets qui lèveront le plus d'argent sont ceux qui savent "vendre du rêve" - et dans le milieu scientifique, c'est est rarement gage de qualité (c'est même plutôt l'inverse...). Bref : même si la valeur de cette crypto est en augmentation, fuyez, ses fondamentaux sont mauvais. D'ailleurs, en décembre 2017, cette crypto a fait un gros pump suite à une "annonce extraordinaire" - dixit l'équipe de développement -, qui s'est révélée être un bide total (un changement de l'algorithme de minage). Certains soupçonnent l'équipe de développement d'avoir organisé cette annonce volontairement pour faire un bon coup. Bref, méfiez-vous !
Dentacoin (DCN) (et non pas DTC) : bitcoin pour les dentistes Cette crypto souhaite devenir la "cryptomonnaie des dentistes". Elle combine paiements (grâce au token Dentacoin), système de reviews des dentistes, assurance. Mon avis : Le système de review est redondant avec ce qui existe déjà, les paiements par blockchain n'ont aucun intérêt (pourquoi payer par token son dentiste ?), et si l'assurance liée pourrait avoir un intérêt aux Etats-Unis (et encore...), elle n'est pas adaptée au système européen qui ont des services d'assurance maladie et de mutuelles de santé. Bref, bien inutile. Pour creuser: une réponse détaillée à la roadmap sur cryptofr .
PutinCoin, TrumpCoin TheresaMayCoin, MACRON (PUT,TRUMP,MAY,MCRN) : crypto-rigolo La preuve que les créateurs de cryptos ont de l'humour ;)
Si vous pensez qu'il faut ajouter de nouvelle cryptomonnaies à analyser, ou des modifications à faire, faites-en part dans les commentaires, j'éditerai régulièrement ce sujet :)
Et surtout, continuez à vous informer et à faire vos recherches, pour vous faire votre propre avis sur les différentes cryptomonnaies proposées !
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