At The Money (ATM) Definition - Investopedia

6 Decisions from a Bored, Benevolent(?) Stranger

"Hey there! You look like your life could use some spicing-up!" You glance up from your computer in surprise as a short, funny-looking man suddenly appears before you. Before you can reply, he continues: "Here's the deal. I'm bored, you're bored. I have unimaginable amounts of supernatural power, you don't. How about I spice things up for both of us?" He offers you 6 decisions in which you can pick from a number of options. For the first 4 decisions, you're limited to one choice, but he eases the rules a bit for the last 2 decisions.
Which options will you choose?

Decision 1: Self-Enhancement

Decision 2: Social Upgrade Kit

Decision 3: Passive Magic Ability

Decision 4: Active Magic Power

Decisions 5 and 6: Helpful Items

Magic Items Tech Items
Wing Tattoo: You get a magical full-back tattoo of a pair of wings in a style and color(s) of your choice. At will, you can instantaneously transform them into a functional pair of wings (same appearance as tattoo and of a size that can support you body weight) or back into a tattoo. You can fly up to 40mph (~65km/h) or up to top Physical Enhancement speed, and flying always uses only as much exertion as walking. Ring of Remolding: This ring can absorb non-organic items/materials within 1 foot (~30cm) of it. It breaks them down into their base components, and it can then use those base components to manufacture new items (including futuristic tech, assuming you've somehow seen/used it or you can design it well enough to work properly). Up to 500 tons of material can be stored at once.
Ring of Moderate Telemancy: Unlimited teleportation within 10mi increments and 2x/day to an unlimited range beyond that. Telekinesis on anything visible within 1 mile (~1.6km). Unlimited lift capacity on things within 50ft, 1 ton weight limit beyond that. No flight. (Teleportation and telekinesis only work on willing people or people who are weak-minded, unsuspecting, or sufficiently distracted.) Supersuit: This supersuit is actually a large number of nanites stored in and controlled by a wristwatch. The nanites can be programmed to transform into just about any material and type of clothing, always perfectly tailored for your body. They can even create lightly armored supersuits, like the Ironman or Spiderman suits, but not the Hulkbuster or other personal mech suits.
Key of Unlocking: This key exists only in your mind. Concentrating on it produces a phantom key, visible only to you, that can can unlock not only any physical or digital lock, but also any metaphorical concept that you personally can conceive of as being locked (e.g. someone’s full potential, "locked lips", etc). Limited only by your imagination and your ability to convince yourself of how to view things! Quantum I.D.: This piece of identification changes to meet your needs at any given time, taking the shape of whatever credential(s) and including whatever information you need (i.e. driver's license with fake name, passport, birth certificate, banking records of the last X years, portfolio of all of the above, etc.) This I.D. passes all conceivable scrutiny.
House Key: Inserting this key into any vertical surface opens a door to an extradimensional space that takes the shape of a house that you can fully customize at will (any futuristic tech you create in the house vanishes upon leaving it). The house can be up to one cubic mile (~4.17km3) in size as long as it remains one continuous building. If you use this key 100 times (each no less than 1 hour after the last) in the same location, you can choose to create a permanent portal, visible and accessible only to you and to those to whom you give explicit permission. When exiting your "house", you may leave through any such portal or through the surface where you entered. Infinite Payment Chip: This chip provides a valid and unlimited line of credit in a form that can reshape itself to be compatible with any interface for digital transactions (credit card reader, ATM, etc). It can also transform into any amount and type of valid physical currency (cash, gold, galactic credits chips, etc). 24 hours after doing so, it reappears in the most reasonable place on your person, and the created currency does not disappear.
submitted by happygolucky95 to 6Perks [link] [comments]

IQ stock broker is a Forex & bitcoin Company in USA Founded in 2012 by a team of highly motivated professionals who are very passionate about trading on the world’s financial market, and are keen on empowering

Bitcoin, Cryptocurrency, forex, make money, online trade, stock exchange
IQ Stock Broker
IQ stock broker is a Forex & bitcoin Company in USA Founded in 2012 by a team of highly motivated professionals who are very passionate about trading on the world’s financial market, and are keen on empowering others on the same bailiwick. Binary options, or digital options, have continued to gain popularity in the past decade, many ambitious traders see binary options as their preferred choice of investment vehicle in this time of market instability. “IQ Stock Broker” stands out as a leader among the brokers out there with a team that is made up of professionals with experience in Binary trading, risk management, derivatives and international laws and legislation. Their combined knowledge and experience trumps that held by most operators in the market. Learn about bitcoin price in USD here and convert bitcoin to dollar, bitcoin to pounds, bitcoin to euro, bitcoin to yen, bitcoin to naira. Create your own bitcoin wallet. Daily bitcoin news. everything you need about bitcoin mining, bitcoin trade, analysis, bitcoin account, bitcoin atm, bitcoin address, bitcoin stock, bitcoin cash, bitcoin halving, bitcoin stock, bitcoin atm, bitcoin wallet, bitcoin mining, bitcoin news, bitcoin address, bitcoin app, bitcoin atm nyc , bitcoin account, bitcoin atm machine ,bitcoin analysis ,bitcoin all time high , bitcoin address lookup , a bitcoin atm ,a bitcoin worth ,a bitcoin atm near me , bitcoin machine ,a bitcoin wallet ,a bitcoin machine near me ,a bitcoin to naira , a bitcoin to dollar , a bitcoin miner ,a bitcoin address , bitcoin billionaires , bitcoin block explorer , bitcoin buy , bitcoin blockchain , bitcoin bsv , bitcoin bank , bitcoin bubble , bitcoin buy or sell ,bitcoin bloomberg , bitcoin blast ,b bitcoin symbol ,bitcoin code ,b bitcoin price ,bitcoin b text , bitcoin b font , bitcoin b wave ,bitcoin b logo ,bitcoin b unicode , bitcoin b letter ,bitcointool.b ,bitcoin cash news , bitcoin crash ,bitcoin current price , bitcoin core , bitcoin cash halving , bitcoin cost , c bitcoin miner , c bitcoin library ,bitcoin c'mon do something , bitcoin c code ,bitcointicker. c bitcoin c github , bitcoin c implementation , bitcointalk c-note , c-cex itcointalk , bitcoin definition ,bitcoin dominance , bitcoin drop , bitcoin diamond ,bitcoin difficulty , bitcoin debit card ,bitcoin dollar ,bitcoin depot , bitcoin documentary ,bitcoin down , bitcoin d.a.v.e, bitcoins d. lynnwood , bitcoin d day , bitcoin d , d konnect bitcoin , d-wave bitcoin mining , the d bitcoin atm, schedule d bitcoin , bitcoin macd , d lynnwood bitcoins , bitcoin explorer, bitcoin exchange rate ,bitcoin explained ,bitcoin ethereum , bitcoin emoji , bitcoin escape from tarkov ,bitcoin energy consumption, bitcoin evolution ,e bitcoin wallet ,e bitcoin cash , e bitcoin kurs , e bitcoin euro, bitcoin e.g. crossword clue ,bitcoin e wallet login , bitcoin e wallet app , bitcoin e commerce ,bitcoin e wallet malaysia ,bitcoin e blockchain , bitcoin futures ,bitcoin farm tarkov, bitcoin around pretoria ,bitcoin around the world documentary ,bitcoin around the , bitcoin atm around me ,bitcoin machine around me , bitcoin legality around the world , bitcoin atm around the world , bitcoin price around the world , bitcoin as an investment , stock exchange about , stock market about to crash , stock market about ,stock market about to crash 2019 , stock market about to crash 2018, stock exchange on wall street , house flip on android , flip house before after , house flip before and after photos , house after flip ,flip house with chip and jo ,flip at house, stock market about in hindi , stock exchange on wikipedia , stock market about to drop, stock market about to collapse, stock exchange across the world ,stock market across the world, stock exchange after hours ,stock exchange after election , stock exchange after brexit , stock exchange after budget, bitcoin as a currency ,bitcoin as property ,bitcoin as money , bitcoin as a unit of account, bitcoin as a store of value, bitcoin as a safe haven ,bitcoin as a gift, bitcoin as a medium of exchange ,bitcoin as digital gold , bitcoin at its highest , bitcoin atm near me, bitcoin atm uk , stock exchange australia , stock exchange australian , stock market Australia, stock market australian , stock exchange d , stock market d, stock exchange cote d'ivoire, IQ stock broker is among the stock exchange kuwait listed companies , stock exchange market kuwait, stock exchange معنى ,stock exchange pakistan ,stock exchange online, bitcoin شرح , bitcoin system ,bitcoin to kwd house after flip ,flip house with chip and jo ,flip at house, , bitcoin atm London, bitcoin atm machine, bitcoin atm glasgow , bitcoin atm manchester , bitcoin atm fees , bitcoin atm edinburgh , bitcoin atm liverpool ,bitcoin before halving ,bitcoin before and after , bitcoin before and now , bitcoin before 2009 , bitcoin before ,bitcoin before blockchain , bitcoin before recession , before bitcoin there was ,bitcoin price before halving ,bitcoin price before 5 years , bitcoin behind , bitcoin behind the scenes , bitcoin behind tor ,bitcoin behind proxy ,bitcoin behind technology , blockchain beyond bitcoin , bitcoin node behind nat ,bitcoin cash behind the scenes , bitcoin idea behind ,bitcoin year behind , bitcoin below 7000 ,bitcoin below 9000 , bitcoin below 8000 ,bitcoin below 4000 , bitcoin below 5000 bitcoin below 3000 , and bitcoin App. “IQ Stock Broker” stands out as a one of the leaders in the industry, and here’s why: Our trading platform is 100% web based and thus you won’t have to download any software. This makes it easy to trade from anywhere… at any time. You don’t need to have any previous trading experience to get going. It is as easy as 1-2-3. The interface is remarkably user friendly. We have worked hard to ensure processes are fast and intuitive. Using our platform, customers can trade on options such as currencies, indices, stocks and commodities round the clock. We provide the most flexible pricing and the most suitable options on the market among all the Forex & Bitcoin companies in USA. Our objective is to make the trading process as simple and profitable as possible for all level of trader. Our team consists experienced professionals with backgrounds in binary trading, derivatives, risk management, payment processing as well as international laws and legislation. Contact us for Bitcoin, Cryptocurrency, forex, make money, online trade, stock exchange. IQ stock broker is listed in American Stock Exchange.
https://iqstockbroker.com
Register with us here https://iqstockbroker.com/register
then login here https://iqstockbroker.com/login
submitted by IQstockbroker to u/IQstockbroker [link] [comments]

Escape from Tarkov - New Player Guide!

Introduction

NEW VERSION: https://www.reddit.com/EscapefromTarkov/comments/ffyynf/escape_from_tarkov_new_player_guide_20_75_pages/

Greetings, this is dumnem, also known as Theorchero, but you can call me Theo. I'm an experienced Tarkov player and I'm writing this guide to try and assist new Tarkov players learn the game, because it has one hell of a learning curve. We'll be going over a lot of different aspects of this guide, and it is going to be huge. Feel free to digest this in parts.
Additionally, this is a work in progress. I will write as much as I can in one Reddit post, but subsequent parts will be in additional comments. Google Docs Version (Note: Link is placeholder atm)
Disclaimer: I haven't played Tarkov regularly in a couple months. It's possible there has been extensive changes that I have not kept up with. If there is anything I have gotten wrong or may have omitted, please let me know.
This is Primarily directed towards Tarkov Novices. It hopefully includes everything you need to know to be able to go into a Raid equipped for success and to successfully extract with gear.
Want to play with friends? Want to have fun and learn Tarkov? Check out my discord here.

Changelog

WORKING ON UPDATING FOR .12, HANG TIGHT.
6/2:
  • Added Veritas chart
  • Fixed Vaseline/Star Balm stats, lab key card.
  • Adjusted formatting slightly, spelling adjustments.
  • Added additional resource, updated old ones.

Table of Contents

  • Tarkov Overview - What is Escape from Tarkov?
  • Tarkov Resources - Useful links
  • Tarkov's Maps
  • Tarkov's Health System
  • Tarkov's Quest System and Progression
  • Tarkov's Hotkeys to Know
  • Getting Started
  • Player Scavs
  • New Player's loadouts - LL1 Traders
  • What to Loot - How to get the most money per slot
  • Stash Management - How to combat Gear Fear
  • What now?

Tarkov Overview - What is Escape from Tarkov?

Escape from Tarkov is a tactical, realistic, FPS with MMO elements developed by Battlestate Games. It is currently in closed Beta. The game features several maps in which your primary character, your PMC, goes into Raids in order to find and salvage loot and useful equipment to survive and thrive in Tarkov. Death is very punishing in Tarkov. If you die you lose everything you had on you when you die (with the exception of what's inside your Container and your melee weapon) including any equipment you brought with you or what you found inside the Raid.
Enemies can be players (PMCs) or 'Scavs' (Scavengers) that are either controlled by AI or by players. Unlike many shooters, AI enemies in Tarkov are deadly - they can and will kill you on sight.
It features beautiful and immersive environments, intricate and in-depth weapon modification system, a complex health system, attention to detail with loot placement, and options for combat. Do you want to play slow and stealthy, to avoid fights, or set up a deadly ambush on an unwary foe? Or do you prefer to raw combat, where only your quick wit, placements of shots, and tenaciousness determines who gets out alive? It's your Tarkov. You make the rules.

Tarkov Resources - Useful links

I take no credit or responsibility for any of the content in these links. To the best of my knowledge, these are updated consistently and are accurate, but user beware.

Quick-Reference Ammo Chart

Created by SirKilljoy, you can find it here. Note: As of 6/2/19, Outdated. Searching for updated file. Send if you have one!
An updated ammo chart can be found here. It's not fancy or quick reference though. Sorry!

Tarkov Wiki

Absolutely fantastic resource. You can visit them here.
It is a massive collection of everything that we players have been able to find.
They contain trades, user-created maps, lists of ammo, parts, weapons, loot, etc. If it's in the game, it's on the Wiki, somewhere.
I highly recommend opening the wiki page for the Map that you plan on raiding in.
Factory
Customs
Woods
Shoreline
Interchange
The Lab ('Labs')

Map Keys and You

Huge collection of all the keys in the game. These are also on the wiki, but this page has them all on one page, and tries to inform the user if the key is worth keeping or using.
Check it out here.
This section is open to revision. Mention me in a thread (or in the comments below) about a resource and I'll see about adding it here.

Tarkov's Weapon Compatibility Guide

Pretty self explanatory. Also includes a Key guide and a Mod guide.
Check it out here.

HUGE Reference Bible by Veritas

Courtesy of Veritas (Send me his reddit username?), It's located here. (Open in new tab.)
Contains: Detailed information about: Ammunition, Health, Firearms, Body Armor, Helmets, Rigs & Backpacks, Labs & Quest keys.

Tarkov's Maps

Tarkov features several maps - ranging from wide, beautiful vistas to ruined factory districts, to an abandoned laboratory where illegal experiments were being conducted. It is important to learn the maps you intend to play. In order to keep your gear, you must 'extract' at one of your designated exfiltration points. Not all exfils will be active every game, and some are conditional.
To see what extracts are available to you, double tap 'O' to show raid time and your exfils. If it has a ???? it might not be open.
You can load Raids in an OFFLINE status, which allows you to explore the map or practice against AI without losing gear.
You do not keep any EXP or gear you find in the OFFLINE Raid, though.
To access OFFLINE Raids, head into a Raid normally until you see this screen.
Simply check 'Enable OFFLINE mode for this Raid' and you're good to go! You even have a choice on whether or not to add AI. You can also control how many AI enemies spawn, fewer than normal or a great deal more! You can even make Scavs fight each other. (Framerates beware.)

Factory

Gate 3 Extract
A small, fast-paced map that was primarily created for PvP. Scavs spawn in all the time. Very close quarters, shotguns and SMGs tend to dominate here. PMCs can only access one Exit (Gate 3) without the Factory Exit Key. Good place to go if you need PMC kills as action is pretty much guaranteed. It is recommend NOT to bring in a lot of gear to Factory until you are experienced.

Customs

Extract map
A fairly large map that was recently expanded. Essentially, players spawn either on 'warehouse' or 'boiler (stacks)' side. If you see a large red warehouse near you (Customs Warehouse), then you spawned on the warehouse side. If you don't, you likely spawned near Boiler side.
The location for most quests in the game. Finding geared players here is very easy, so if you are low level attempting to complete early quests (like The Bronze Pocketwatch) it's recommend to AFK in the raid for 20 mins or so, as most players will have moved out of spawns and hit the 'hot' areas already, so it's less likely to be contested, so you may grab your quest item(s) and proceed immediately to Exfil.
Contains a Scav Boss, which is a group of scavs with above-average to high-tier gear that has a chance to spawn in Dorms or Gas Station.

Woods

Woods Map with Exfil
A very large map that is mostly just a large forest, with the occasional bunker, and the Lumber Mill in the center. The Lumber Mill is the primary point of interest, as it contains a couple quest locations and is the primary location to farm Scavs, as Scavs killed on woods is the only known location to find the Arsenal Key, which is the rarest and most valuable key in the game at the moment.
Since the map is so large and open, sniper rifles with scopes usually reign king here. You will see a lot of players with Mosin rifles as they are a cheap way to train the Sniper skill (for a quest later on) and are capable of killing geared players and scavs alike.
Overall, not usually very populated. An early quest from Prapor sends you here to kill a number of Scavs. A good map to learn the game, as although the loot is not fantastic, you can get experience with how the game runs and operates while fighting AI and possibly getting lucky with a key find off a scav.

Shoreline

Shoreline Map, with Loot, Exfil, etc
A very large map, notorious for its FPS hit. Generally speaking, one of the better maps for loot.
The primary point of interest is the Resort, but scavs spawn there, and is primarily occupied by hatchlings (players only with hatchet, ie melee weapon) and geared players. Resort has great loot, but requires keys to access most of it.
A great map to learn though from new players as the outskirts still contains plenty of loot and combat opportunities with AI scavs. You can hit Villa, Scav Island, Weather station, Docks, etc and come out with a backpack full of valuable gear fairly easily.
Location of many quests, including a large quest chain where players are required to kill many, many, scavs on Shoreline.

Interchange

Detailed map
Great, great loot area, but very complex map. Doesn't run very well on old computers. Features a mostly-binary exfil system like Shoreline, but.. kinda worse. Exfil camping is fairly common on this map. Huge map with multiple floors and many many different stores. Communication with teammates is a challenge on this map, but the map is also fantastically detailed.
This map features a lot of loot that depends on the kind of store you're in. It's a great place to farm rare barter materials which are valuable to sell on the Flea market or to use for quests. An early quest (from Ragman) sends you here to kill a large amount of Scavs. I'd recommend getting Ragman to level 2 and accepting his quest before going to Interchange, as getting this quest done can take a while as it is and you want all scav kills to count towards progress.

The Lab ('Labs')

Here's a map.
This is a very complex map, so I highly recommend you read the Wiki article and look at all the maps to get an idea of what it's like.

INSURANCE DOES NOT WORK ON THIS MAP.

If you purchase insurance and lose your items on this map, doesn't matter from whom, you will not get them back.

LABS IS NOT LIKE OTHER MAPS. READ THIS SECTION CAREFULLY.

Labs is by far the most lucrative map to play at the moment. You can easily earn several million roubles per hour by killing Raiders (Juiced-up scavs that are ONLY on Labs), looting their equipment, then running to one of the many, many extracts. Extract camping is hard to pull off and pretty much not viable on Labs.
DISCLAIMER: Labs, like much of Tarkov, is under constant development, so issues may be fixed or created without warning. Always check patch notes!

Raiders

Raiders are the avatars of Death in Tarkov, clad in USEC and BEAR hats, high-end armor, and plenty of firepower to boot. Do not fight Raiders directly. They WILL kill you. Raiders are absolutely broken this patch, and are getting fixed next patch to help fix their exploits of both poor AI and how they're a little.. insane. At the moment, the only way to kill raiders is to camp a hallway, room, or door, and attract the scavs to you, headshotting them the moment they enter before they have a chance to lock onto you.
Raiders can see you through and shoot you through surfaces you cannot.
This means you have to be very careful when engaging them. They are also often equipped with very high-end ammo, meaning that most faceshields (even Killa helmets) can be useless vs a Scav who spawned with 'big boy' ammo, 7N39. They can shoot your head if it's even slightly visible. They can prone instantly, as they have no ping. If they drop without slumping over, get to cover immediately.
Typically, strategies to farm Labs (barring rushing certain rooms for static loot) involve rushing a camp-spot and baiting raiders to your location and taking them out quickly, efficiently, and with no mercy. There are many locations to camp, and since there's so many exfiltrations, it's ultimately up to personal preference.
Raiders often spawn with armor (often Troopers and Gen4s) a rig (Sniper or Ana Alpha rig, usually) and a variety helmets and weapons. Always check the ammo the raiders spawn with. If they spawn with ANYTHING other than PS (and 12 gauge) LOOT IT! You can right click their magazine and hit 'unload ammo' to get the ammo without having to grab the mags, which saves space.
BS, BT, BP, 7N39, etc can be worth several hundred roubles a round on the market. They're extremely valuable.
Additionally, Raiders spawn IFAKS, Morphine, and grenades (F-1 & Flashbangs (Zarya)) with regularity. They can also spawn with random consumables and large clumps of cash in their pockets as well. They can spawn several backpacks, most of them being rather large, if relatively uncommon.
Additionally, Raiders can have American names, breach doors, and mumble as if they are a USEC PMC because some of the Raiders are actually USECs. You will learn with experience what the Scavs will or will not say.
Experience Farming on Labs
Labs is perhaps the best place to farm experience on the current patch.
Killing a Raider with a headshot awards 1100 Experience.
This does not include any looting, inspection (searching bodies), examine, streak, or other experience.
Killing a large sequence of Raiders gives additional bonus experience in the form of Streak rewards, usually 100 bonus exp per additional kill.
Surviving the raid multiplies all of these sources of experience by 1.5x
Changes coming to Labs
Disclaimer: I am not a BSG developer or employee. This is what I have seen on this subreddit and heard elsewhere. Some might be purely rumor, but other points are confirmed by Nikita.
Labs is currently undergoing an overhaul. At the moment, you require consumable Keycards to enter Labs, which may be purchased from Therapist or bartered Mechanic in exchange for 1 Bitcoin starting at Loyalty Level II. They can also be found in drawers and jackets. Scavs can drop permanent keycards that replace most keys used in the previous iteration of labs.
The full extent of the changes coming is not known.
Remember, you can load a map in OFFLINE mode to practice against bots or to learn the map without fear of losing gear.

Tarkov's Health System

Tarkov Wiki Article
Tarkov has a very advanced health system, and while it might seem overwhelming at first, you'll get the hang of it rather quickly. It features a very wide variety of effects and injury, including hydration, energy, blood pressure, blood loss, fractures, contusion, intoxication, exhaustion, tremors and more.
Not all of the Health System is implemented yet. Expect changes!
Your character (PMC, or otherwise) has a combined Health of 435. Each of his limbs have separate health. Taking damage to a limb that reduces it to 0 'blacks' that limb. Blacked limbs are a problem. They greatly impair the activities your PMC performs, and taking damage in a blacked limb amplifies the damage by a multiplier and spreads that damage among your other non-black limbs equally. You cannot heal a blacked limb.
Notes: Bloodloss applies damage to the affected limb and can be spread like other damage to a blacked limb. Treat immediately. Also causes significant dehydration!
Losing a limb applies additional effects. Fractures also apply these effects but not the damage amplification (Except for damage if running on fractured leg.)
Dehydration is what happens when your Hydration level reaches 0. You can view your Hydration level in your gear page, at the bottom left. Becoming dehydrated is extremely bad. You take constant damage. Taking dehydration damage can kill you if you have a black chest or head.
Head/Chest: Bullet damage resulting in losing your head or chest is instant death. Note: Bloodloss resulting in your Head/Chest being black does not result in death, but any damage to them beyond that point will! A back chest will causes you to cough (much like your stomach!)
Painkillers: Prevents coughing that comes from your chest. Doesn't help otherwise.
Stomach: Massively increased rate of dehydration and energy loss. You must find liquids or exit the Raid soon. Additionally, your PMC will cough sputter loudly, attracting attention.
Painkillers: Significantly reduces the frequency and volume of the coughs.
Arms: Makes activities like searching, reloading, etc, take additional time, as well as adding a sway, reducing accuracy. Arms have a .7x damage multiplier.
Painkillers: Reduces sway, removes debuff Pain.
Legs: Blacked legs cause your PMC to stumble and be unable to run. Blacked legs have a 1x damage multiplier.
Painkillers: Allows you to walk at full speed and to run.
WARNING: Running while your legs are blacked or fractured WILL DAMAGE YOU.
Health Items
Tarkov features many health items - 'Aid' items, which can be used to restore your characters health and to fix ailments or injuries he receives as the result of combat or mishaps. The two most important health conditions to consider are bloodloss and fractures, which have both been covered above. Some food items may have ancillary effects, such as losing hydration.
Since in the current patch the only ailments to worry about are bleeding and fractures, it changes which health items are most necessary. We'll go over them below.

Health Restoration

Medical Items on Wiki
AI-2 medkit
The newb's medical kit. You receive several of these when you start Tarkov - they'll already be in your stash. Available from Level I Therapist, they are cheap and effective way of healing early in the game. They will not stop bloodloss. Because of this, you also need to bring bandages or a higher-grade medical kit.
Affectionately called 'little cheeses' by the Tarkov community. Using it takes 2 seconds, and because of how cheap it is, it's often brought in by higher level players to supplement their healing without draining their main kit (which is capable of healing bloodloss or sometimes fractures). Due to its short use time, it's often very useful during combat as you can take cover and quickly recover damage taken to a vital limb.
Bandages
The newb's bloodloss solution. Available from Therapist at Level I. A better version, the Army Bandage is available at Level II, after a quest. Mostly obsolete after unlocking the Car Medical kit. Activating takes 4 seconds, and removes bloodloss to one limb.
Splint
The newb's solution to fractures. Cheap, takes five seconds to use, and takes up 1 slot. Not generally recommended to take because fractures effects can be greatly mitigated with the use of Painkillers. Available from Therapist at Level I, no quest needed.
Car Medical Kit
The newb's first real medical solution. Available LL1 as a barter (2 Duct Tape) and available for Roubles after completing Therapist's second quest. Has a larger health pool than AI-2's (220, vs AI-2's 100), and removes bloodloss. Takes up a 1x2 slot, so requires to be placed in a tactical rig in order to be used effectively. Cheap and fairly efficient, takes a standard 4 seconds to use. Rendered effectively obsolete when the Salewa is unlocked.
Salewa
Good medkit for use in mid and end-game. Contains 400 total health and can remove bloodloss. Relatively expensive at 13k roubles per kit, though. Same size as the Car medical kit, so requires a tactical rig to use effectively. Because Tarkov does not currently have effects like Toxication in the game at the moment, this kit is favored by most players who go into a raid with at least a moderate level of gear.
Unlocked at Therapist Level II after completing a level 10 Prapor quest, Postman Pat Part II.
IFAK
Fantastic medical kit, and is the one preferred by most players. Features 300 health and the ability to remove bloodloss and a host of other negative effects that are not yet implemented into the game. It does not, however, remove fractures. Taking up only a single slot, it is favored by players in all stages of gear, and it is recommend to carry one in your Secure Container in case of emergencies. Is available at Therapist Level II for a barter (Sugar + Sodium), and may be purchased for Roubles at Level III after completing Healthcare Privacy, Part I.
It is a fairly expensive kit, but due to its durability, its small size, and ability to remove bloodloss, it is a very common medical item used by players of all levels.
Grizzly
The 'big daddy' medical kit, boasting an impressive total health resource of 1800. It is also a very large kit, taking up 4 slots (2x2) - in order to be able to use this quickly, it would require specialized tactical rigs that feature a 2x2 slot. It removes all negative effects (some costing HP resource), including fractures.
Used by highly-geared players who intend on staying in raids for an extended period of time, or by players with additional Secure Container space available in case of emergencies. It is available for barter at Therapist Level II, and purchase at Therapist Level 4.

Pain Management

Using any of these items results in your character being 'On Painkillers' which allows you to sprint on fractured and blacked legs, as well as reducing effects of fractures and blacked limbs, and removing the debuff Pain. Essentially, the only difference between most of these items are the speed of use, price, availability, and duration of the effect.
Analgin Painkillers
The holy grail of pain medication. With the recent changes, "Painkillers" now have 4 total uses, not 1. The total duration is now greater than Morphine and less risk of waste. Takes a short time to use, and is available from Therapist Level 1 for both barter and Roubles.
Morphine
Quick application of painkillers. Favored by some highly geared players as it has greater usability in combat then it's typical counterpart, Painkillers. Has a longer duration, but only one use. Is required for a fairly early Therapist (and a late Peacekeeper) Quest, so it is recommend to hoard 10 of them, then sell the rest unless you intend on using them. They are worth a good amount to Therapist and take up little space so they are a valuable loot item. Available from Therapist for Roubles at Level 4, after completing Healthcare Privacy, Part 3.
Augmentin
Basically a cheaper Morphine. One use, 260s. Not recommended over Painkillers due to its cost. No current barter for this item, so usually it's just a fairly expensive, small loot item to sell to Therapist when found.
Ibuprofen
Powerful painkiller. Lasts 600 seconds and has 12 uses. However, it is not recommended to use it as a Painkiller. It is very valuable because it cannot be purchased from Dealers, it must be found, and it is a barter component to late-game containers, the Keytool and THICC Items Case.
Vaseline
Powerful medical item. Cannot be purchased from dealers. Has 10 uses. Removes Pain.
Golden Star Balm
Fairly useful medical item. It can remove Pain and Contusion (not a big deal of a debuff, goes away on its own shortly) and provides a small bonus to hydration and energy. However, because Hydration is usually easy to restore (Liquids are easy to find as 'common' or 'trash' tier loot), and Energy at the moment can't run to 0 within current Raid timers, it is Recommended to just to sell to Therapist as a Loot item.
Medical Injectors are not covered here. Essentially, they are powerful but niche items with strong side effects. Most recommended use is to store them in your Secure Container and sell them either on the Flea Market or to Therapist for roubles.
To be able to Hotkey a medicine item, they must be in a tactical rig or your pockets.

Tarkov's Quest, Progression, and Experience Systems

Tarkov features a very immersive progression system where your main character (PMC) is going into raids to acquire loot - goods that can be sold for a profit to other players, to Dealers (NPC Merchants), or used to fulfill quest requirements in order to complete them and receive your rewards. Additionally, your main character will increase their prowess in a number of skills, which increases everything from how much they can run, increases the ease of which recoil can be controlled, and even how far you can throw grenades. These are referred to 'soft skills.'
Additionally, your PMC is assigned a Level. You can increase your Level by earning Experience - which is rewarded by performing numerous tasks throughout the Raid, completing quests, examining new items, killing other players and Scavs, etc. Successfully extracting from a raid will increase the experience you earn from the raid via a multiplier.
Increasing your PMC's level will allow you to complete additional quests, which increases your Reputation with certain Dealers (and may reduce your Reputation with others) allowing you access to better equipment to purchase. Additionally, completing quests will often reward you with large sums of currency and sometimes equipment, and certain quests unlock items for purchase from that dealer.
A Dealer's arsenal of available weapons, ammo, mods, medication, containers, and etc to purchase by you is determined by their Loyalty Level - or LL, for short. Certain Dealers specialize in different kinds of equipment, and they will pay different rates or straight up not buy particular items. In a future release, eventually Dealers will offer discounts to the player based off their Loyalty Level.
Article on Dealers

Increasing Loyalty Level

Increasing your Trader's loyalty level is extremely important to your progression and overall success in Tarkov. Being able to purchase better Ammo and Equipment is essential to being able to fight other players and secure their loot for your own. Owning Prepare for Escape and Edge of Darkness (EoD) editions of Escape from Tarkov will increase your starting Reputations with Traders. It is unclear if this change will stay after the game's full release.
Typically though, you need three things to increase your Trader's level.
  • Reputation
This is accomplished via quests. Completing a quest will reward you with an increase in the quest givers' reputation, sometimes an increase in another trader's reputation, and sometimes will reduce the Reputation of another trader. Not all Traders need a certain level of Reputation to increase their loyalty Level to II. Peacekeeper and Ragman, for example, just need you to spend a certain amount of money with them.
  • Character Level and Experience Gain
The primary gate behind your trade level (and thus your overall economy and gear leverage) is your Character Level. You increase this by gaining Experience. The easiest way to gain experience is to Loot high value areas, fight players, and kill scavs while completing quests. Generally speaking, your level will advance as you play the game at a moderate pace. One way to farm experience though is to avoid looting all-together and just focus on killing a large number of scavs from a safe distance, after learning where they tend to spawn on any given map. This patch however, labs is fantastic for experience gain. (See above.) Another strategy (albeit one that takes longer) is to loot everything, then drop what you don't want. You gain experience for finding items and picking them up, so picking them up to drop them is technically the best way to gain the most exp per kill.
You can receive additional bonuses to Experience earned. Successfully extracting will increase your experience by a multiplier, typically 1.5x the experience gained during the raid, escaping also rewards a 300 exp Escape bonus which is added to your total before the multiplier is applied.
You can also receive experience bonuses for Exploration, so visiting different parts of the map will reward you with sums of experience, usually 100 to 300 or so. Killing multiple enemies in a row will reward you with Streaks, whose rewards increase as you get more kills. Getting a kill with a Headshot also significantly improves experience gain from kills. You also receive a (very small) bonus when you survive consecutive raids.
Note: Completing a Raid too early (via extraction) will cause you to receive a Run-Through status, which reduces experience earned in that raid by 50%.
Most Quests require you to be a certain level to unlock, and upon completion rewards you with a lot of exp and usually the ability to purchase specific equipment.
  • Money Spent
This is pretty self-explanatory. As mentioned above, Peacekeeper and Ragman can be increased easily just be selling and buying from them. If you need to artifically inflate the amount spent, a good idea is to purchase a large amount of cheap items from them and sell them back to the Trader. You still take a significant loss, usually around 50-60% per purchase, but since the money spent counts both items sold to the vendor and purchases, you get about 140-150% credit per item at about half the cost.

Selling Efficiency

Not all dealers pay the same for certain items. It is important to note that a lot of this is my personal experience, and prices can fluctuate as the Developers may change them for any reason. Use your own common sense and check various dealers before selling particularly lucrative items.

Prapor

Sells AKs, Magazines, many different Ammo types, Grenades, and weapon modifications. I don't tend to sell to him very often, as he doesn't pay the highest for any items that I have personally seen and because you tend to buy most Ammo and mags from him it's not a particular issue to level him up with money spent.

Therapist

Sells medical supplies, food and drink, and storage cases, which are items that effectively increase the size of your stash because they have more space inside than they take up. Most storage items are restricted to certain item types. Pays most for items like Keys, Statues, Rolers, Bitcoin, etc. Many of these items should be sold on the market instead of to her, but often times it's not worth the hassle.

Fence

Pays least for items, sells items for more than other Dealers. Items other players have sold will appear here. Only sell items to Fence that other dealers will not take! Basically a placeholder for an expanded Market.

Skier

Sells various weapons, mods, ammo, Euros, and containers. Pays most for items like Armor, backpacks, headgear, facemasks, flashlights, sights, etc. It is important to note, that Skier will not buy Weapons or most Mods. That means for things like flashlights, you have to take the flashlights/sights off the mount or rail in order for him to buy them, but he pays the best.

Peacekeeper

Deals entirely in Western equipment, UN armor, helmets, etc. Will buy most items, but will pay USD for them. Deals entirely in USD. One good way to get his money spent requirement is just to buy USD, which is used for a later quest from Skier, which unlocks his quest chain. He has a lot of good deals, experiment for yourself. At the moment his MP5 for 10 'bars' knives (scav knives) is an exceptionally good deal and easy to accomplish for new players.

Mechanic

Sells mostly completed weapons with various modifications and unique names, and mods. Sells magazines and some ammo. Offers containers as you progress. His quests are easy to complete, but often are money dumps in exchange for large sums of EXP more than anything else. Pays the most for modifications (except for sights and suppressors) and stripped guns.

Ragman

Sells backpacks, armor, tactical vests, and helmets mostly. Offers aesthetic clothing. Can obtain LL2 by just purchasing from him, does not require reputation. In fact, his first quest tasks you with that very objective. As far as I can see, he does not pay the most for any items in particular. But he is a very useful merchant once you have him at level 2. He will sell Scav Backpacks, which are an extremely efficient backpack to use as it's fairly large but very cheap.
Rule of Thumb for selling items at most value
Weapons: Strip the weapon! Take apart ALL pieces of it (including gas tubes, separating flashlights from ring mounts, etc), sell what you can to Skier. For the rest, sell to Mechanic.
Keys, Food, Medical Items, Statues, Bitcoin, Rolers, etc: Therapist or the Market. For items like this, ALWAYS check the Market first! A lot of these kinds of items are in valuable trades or are required for quests; this means that other players are often willing to pay more for them, above trader prices.

Continued below in a comment, due to character limit.

submitted by dumnem to EscapefromTarkov [link] [comments]

My summery for the syndicate faction update and the general state of the game!

TLDR:
GOOD:
Depth (Carry-Over, Combos, Deck building, New mechanics)
Consistency (Card Value and Thinning)
NEUTRAL:
Balance (Tech cards, Flexibility, Bronze Strength)
BAD:
Interactivity and Binary Design (Direct Dmg, Artefacts, Coins and Big Finishers)

Hi everyone: I need to make my own thread to discuss what's happening in the design of Gwent and the direction we are headed.
I hope people will actually value my opinion here, if I create my own thread and feel encouraged to reply and join the discussion, instead of simply downvoting without any explanation.
I am open for any critic you might have and promise to consider it. I am only a casual player, so I will for sure have flaws in my logic and maybe enjoy parts of Gwent that other might find annoying.
That being said, lets dive into it:

THE GOOD:
first off: like most of you guys, I am having a great deal of fun playing the new faction.
Deck building is challenging and the game plan is complex and asks you to think about your future turns to maximize the profit you gain out of your coins. So the two things i enjoy most about this expansion is DEPTH and CONSISTANCY. And that is awesome - that's why I fell in love with Gwent in the first place. To have more of it is a true joy.
For me, DEPTH is the multitude of decisions you make during the game to maximize the points at the end of each turn, round and match. This includes setting up combos over multiple turns (preparing bounties, setting up scorch or AoE, ...), as well as thinking about resource management. The later could mean to save a lock/movement/removal for an important engine or to keep your Geralt round 1, to have an edge in round 3 to destroy something huge. Another great thing to think about is carry-over into the next round - how can I secure an advantage in the rounds to come? The Coin-Mechanic does a wonderful job here, even influencing things like deck building by the need to balance coin generation and spending. This is probably what i enjoy MOST about the new expansion!
The second thing that I like is the CONSISTANCY the new faction offers. Part of it is also thanks to the Coin-Mechanic, but a lot of it also comes from the increased strength of the low bronze units and the two nice thinning tools. I really enjoy the idea behind both of those. Hoard and Insanity MAKE you think about when you actually want to have coins, and when not. I think this should be used even to a greater extent, so piling up your gold is not always the best option! For an example, my idea would be to remove the FEE bleeding from Whoresons Freakshow, so that you really have to plan when you want to use it, because you cant use the insanity ability if you have coins. As for the strong bronze units: they have great synergy - and that's what really makes them shine! almost none of them are just a point slam without setup. If you meet their condition you get rewarded - A LOT, that makes it fun to play them! Bounty setup, swarm engine, bonded interaction/engine or hoard value - you name it, they deliver! So to sum it up: THIS FACTION IS A HUGE FUN TO PLAY!
But all good things come to an end at some point and the new expansion has some flaws as well. One it produced itself (BALANCE), which I take as a neutral - because I expect CDPR to correct it (which they already announced) and one that is more of a general design problem Gwent has been struggling with, that got multiplied by the Syndicate update (INTERACTIVITY). This is my biggest concern and it really makes me worry about the future of my beloved game.

THE NEUTRAL:
So lets tackle the part, which I am confident will be resolved soon, before diving into the unpleasant last bit. Obviously the power creep is real, but I wont argue about that, because the result speaks for itself: its a blast to play these bronze bombs. CDPR stated that the other factions will catch up and I fully support this idea, bronzes should be the backbone of a deck. So now for the more relevant topics surrounding balance which need to be discussed: Tech Cards and general Flexibility/Consistency. To get into it: this how I understand balance: In the perfect meta, each leader has a (tier 1) deck that follows a specific game plan. all of these decks have a 50% chance to win against ALL other (tier 1) decks. Now some Leaders/Decks are more popular then others, be it because people like to slam huge stuff on the board (big monsters), or because boobs - lets call it "aesthetics" (dryads) or because a leader is just a crowd favourite from the games lore. That's where tech cards come in: they get more value in a specific match up, but loose value in others.
Lets look at two cards that have a similar goal, but a different approach: Geralt of Rivia (GoR) and Geralt: Professional (GP). Both have 3 strength and costs 10/11 provisions, so very close as well. GoR destroys any units with 8 or more strength and blanks on anything below. GP damages any unit by 3 and if its a multiple of 3, destroys it. Both of these cards will vastly improve your chance of winning against big monsters, GoR even more than GP - so lets say GoR makes it a 60/40 match up while GP manages a 55/45. But against something like an NR engine deck, both of these cards may loose you the game! Again, GoR more then GP: lets assume 40/60 and 45/55. These are good tech cards, they have upsides and downsides - they will help in a specific situations, but be a burden in others! If we now compare them with cards like Kalkenstein (purify) (7 for 7) or Tunnel Drill (artefact removal) (6 for 6). We notice that there is no value loss if the conditions are not met and that is REALY bad.
Tech cards NEED to loose value if they do not find their target, otherwise there is no point in trying to play the countered archetype any more - they do not have to fear the downside to having a much higher winratio against your deck. This destroys deck diversity. As for which out of GoR or GP has the better design? For me its GP by a long shot, mostly because it is less binary. you will always get some value by removing something small, but you may gain huge value if you hit the right target. But it also promotes counter play and interactivity (I'm ignoring Eithne for this), because both sides can influence the outcome and play around it. This can be extremely rewarding for both players. We need more tech cards like this!

THE BAD:
And so we get the the main issue I have with gwent atm: INTERACTIVITY and BINARY DESIGN! Almost all balance updates try to improve these two issues: be it the Artefact disaster in dez/jan, or the no unit decks, or the constant nerves to direct dmg cards like Ifrit, Regis, Chironex,... or lastly the broken game finishers like HUGEBERT (lets ignore the thinning nerves, because that's a huge topic on its own). And now, after all these nerves regarding this issue, we are in the worst state we have ever been. EVERY deck revolves only around DIRECT DMG vs POINT SLAM, ARTIFACTS and most importantly A HUGE FINISHER. We have more and better direct removal than ever, making any engine without zeal utterly unplayable. This was getting worse over the last expansions, because CDPR keeps printing new direct dmg cards - we have a solution for everything now: dmg through shield, purify + dmg, dmg and banish, dmg and dmg.. and more dmg (and now steal, abduct and abuse as well). Not even the graveyard is save any more. This has to stop.
Because of this, the only counter is to not play any interactable units at all and end with a huge finisher on the last turn. Due to the coin mechanic, SY excels at this. Best examples are coerced blacksmith: (a 5p Fee engine that can produce a swing of 22 points for Gudrun) and WH executioner bounty abuse that gets more and more popular, stacking indirect value and then cashing it all in on the last possible turn, so no one can react to it. Bronze cards should not be able to produce this much value as a finisher. Even gold ones are very critical (hello hubert, hello dagur, hello sheldon). but because these cards cost just 5p, you have so much provision left to win the first round with your gold cards that its almost impossible for other factions to compete.
We need to break out of this cycle and focus on another kind of removal again: soft removal. The interaction between Lock and Purify is actually really interesting and fun. But it never comes to this, because why lock an engine when you can also just kill it with no deficit? Row restrictions and movement is also a great interaction. You could add weather like biting frost that adds a cool down to engines, or make fog make a lane untargetable for units with reach (and add more unit-interaction like blood moon/vampire,..). And then add weathers that have a positive effect, like a warm breeze that buffs a unit each round. Let the timers of these weather conditions stack, like bleeding and vitality does, to cancle each other out. And most importantly: make removal less binary! If an order deals 1dmg to 3 targets on the ranged row, it should still deal 1 dmg to 1 target on melee. make lock time based (like lock for 5 turns) so there is interaction! (you can pass before the engine can get used again, or you could lock it again in the final round, ....)
Ofc a lot of engines would have to be balanced as well, cap them by a cool down, or a maximum of charges they can use and so on. There are endless possibilities and ALL OF THEM are better the the plain and boring direct removal options we have now. Some artefacts like the svalblod totem are a great example of a less binary and interactive design. It gives value immediately, but the order ability allows you to gain additional value later on - but that can be interrupted! GIVE ME MORE OF THAT!
PLEASE don't just give all NR engines zeal and print more direct dmg cards. We need interaction, we want to plan and think about out turns. The positive feedback to this side of the coin mechanic shows it, this is a lot of fun. Make coin intractable for both sides in a way that does not feel to bad as well! (not exactly sure how to do that: some ideas below at the end, discuss this with me please!

Summery:
I really like some of the new approaches on depth in gameplay and deck building. there are a lot of interesting decisions to make and thinking ahead gets rewarded, it feels awesome to achieve your game plan after struggeling through all the calculations. I am confident that the balance around bronze cards will be restored in the future and I absolutely approve of the idea that they are the core of your deck to build around, not some thrash that gets tossed asap. I would like them to keep improving the flexibility of cards and reduce the binary gaps existing in the game. BUT there has to be a price (on provisions) for flex/tech cards!
That all being said, I really fear the direction we are travelling towards - and sadly this sucks all the fun out of gwent for me atm.. the game revolves more and more around direct removal, going so far to even deny the graveyard mechanic (banish against revive, flying redanien,.. ). While i enjoy the Coin-mechanic for its depth, I absolutely dislike the uninteractive part. stockpiling it is way to easy and that makes the carry over a problem (but I like the idea). Please take a step away from hard removal, and step towards interactivity. Add more soft removal and look for new ways to generate value over time: weather (explained above), ...

Thanks for reading! Sorry for my passion and my bad spelling and grammar. I tried to correct it as best as I can, but I'm really bad at proof reading my own stuff :/ There is a lot more stuff i wanted to include and I most likely forgot something important, but that's what the discussion is for! feel free to share your opinion, this has gotten way longer then I had in mind.

*ideas for interaction with coins:
-some few units that steal half the coins, rounded up (9->5, 8->4, 7->4,..coins), like a bronze 5p tech-card and.. I am looking at you angouleme - like a new deploy effect for the melee row, ranged stays the same!
-give some SY units a death wish that consumes some coins. (but that would promote direct dmg)
-or just make coins harder to get? I honestly did not think to much about this yet, give me your ideas!
submitted by Shagric to gwent [link] [comments]

Emergent Coding FAQ

Background reading
  1. https://youtu.be/-MMQUspVduo ELI5 with pictures.
  2. https://youtu.be/ZSkZxOJ5HPA Hello World using Emergent Coding
  3. https://codevalley.com/whitepaper.pdf This document treats Emergent coding from a philosophical perspective. It has a good introduction, description of the tech and is followed by two sections on justifications from the perspective of Fred Brooks No Silver Bullet criteria and an industrialization criteria.
  4. Mark Fabbro's presentation from the Bitcoin Cash City Conference which outlines the motivation, basic mechanics, and usage of Bitcoin Cash in reproducing the industrial revolution in the software industry.
  5. Building the Bitcoin Cash City presentation highlighting how the emergent coding group of companies fit into the adoption roadmap of North Queensland.
  6. Forging Chain Metal by Paul Chandler CEO of Aptissio, one of startups in the emergent coding space and which secured a million in seed funding last year.
  7. Bitcoin Cash App Exploration A series of Apps that are some of the first to be built by emergent coding and presented, and in the case of Cashbar, demonstrated at the conference.
  8. A casual Bitcoin Cash interview that touches on emergent coding, tech park, merchant adoption and much more.
How does Emergent Coding prevent developer capture?
A developer's Agent does not know what project they are contributing to and is thus paid for the specific contribution. The developer is controlling the terms of the payment rather than the alternative, an employer with an employment agreement.
Why does Emergent Coding use Bitcoin BCH?
  1. Both emergent coding and Bitcoin BCH are decentralized: As emergent coding is a decentralized development environment consisting of Agents providing respective design services, each contract received by an agent requires a BCH payment. As Agents are hosted by their developer owners which may be residing in one of 150 countries, Bitcoin Cash - an electronic peer-to-peer electronic cash system - is ideal to include a developer regardless of geographic location.
  2. Emergent coding will increase the value of the Bitcoin BCH blockchain: With EC, there are typically many contracts to build an application (Cashbar was designed with 10000 contracts or so). EC adoption will increase the value of the Bitcoin BCH blockchain in line with this influx of quality economic activity.
  3. Emergent coding is being applied to BCH software first: One of the first market verticals being addressed with emergent coding is Bitcoin Cash infrastructure. We are already seeing quality applications created using emergent coding (such as the HULA, Cashbar, PH2, vending, ATMs etc). More apps and tools supporting Bitcoin cash will attract more merchants and business to BCH.
  4. Emergent coding increases productivity: Emergent coding increases developer productivity and reduces duplication compared to other software development methods. Emergent coding can provide BCH devs with an advantage over other coins. A BCH dev productivity advantage will accelerate Bitcoin BCH becoming the first global currency.
  5. Emergent coding produces higher quality binaries: Higher quality software leads to a more reliable network.

1. Who/what is Code Valley? Aptissio? BCH Tech Park? Mining and Server Complex?
Code Valley Corp Pty Ltd is the company founded to commercialize emergent coding technology. Code Valley is incorporated in North Queensland, Australia. See https://codevalley.com
Aptissio Australia Pty Ltd is a company founded in North Queensland and an early adopter of emergent coding. Aptissio is applying EC to Bitcoin BCH software. See https://www.aptissio.com
Townsville Technology Precincts Pty Ltd (TTP) was founded to bring together partners to answer the tender for the Historic North Rail Yard Redevelopment in Townsville, North Queensland. The partners consist of P+I, Conrad Gargett, HF Consulting, and a self-managed superannuation fund(SMSF) with Code Valley Corp Pty Ltd expected to be signed as an anchor tenant. TTP answered a Townsville City Council (TCC) tender with a proposal for a AUD$53m project (stage 1) to turn the yards into a technology park and subsequently won the tender. The plan calls for the bulk of the money is to be raised in the Australian equity markets with the city contributing $28% for remediation of the site and just under 10% from the SMSF. Construction is scheduled to begin in mid 2020 and be competed two years later.
Townsville Mining Pty Ltd was set up to develop a Server Complex in the Kennedy Energy Park in North Queensland. The site has undergone several studies as part of a due diligence process with encouraging results for its competitiveness in terms of real estate, power, cooling and data.
  1. TM are presently in negotiations with the owners of the site and is presently operating under an NDA.
  2. The business model calls for leasing "sectors" to mining companies that wish to mine allowing companies to control their own direction.
  3. Since Emergent Coding uses the BCH rail, TM is seeking to contribute to BCH security with an element of domestic mining.
  4. TM are working with American partners to lease one of the sectors to meet that domestic objective.
  5. The site will also host Emergent Coding Agents and Code Valley and its development partners are expected to lease several of these sectors.
  6. TM hopes to have the site operational within 2 years.
2. What programming language are the "software agents" written in.
Agents are "built" using emergent coding. You select the features you want your Agent to have and send out the contracts. In a few minutes you are in possession of a binary ELF. You run up your ELF on your own machine and it will peer with the emergent coding and Bitcoin Cash networks. Congratulations, your Agent is now ready to accept its first contract.
3. Who controls these "agents" in a software project
You control your own Agents. It is a decentralized development system.
4. What is the software license of these agents. Full EULA here, now.
A license gives you the right to create your own Agents and participate in the decentralized development system. We will publish the EULA when we release the product.
5. What kind of software architecture do these agents have. Daemons Responding to API calls ? Background daemons that make remote connection to listening applications?
Your Agent is a server that requires you to open a couple of ports so as to peer with both EC and BCH networks. If you run a BCH full node you will be familiar with this process. Your Agent will create a "job" for each contract it receives and is designed to operate thousands of jobs simultaneously in various stages of completion. It is your responsibility to manage your Agent and keep it open for business or risk losing market share to another developer capable of designing the same feature in a more reliable manner (or at better cost, less resource usage, faster design time etc.). For example, there is competition at every classification which is one reason emergent coding is on a fast path for improvement.
It is worth reiterating here that Agents are only used in the software design process and do not perform any role in the returned project binary.
6. What is the communication protocol these agents use.
The protocol is proprietary and is part of your license.
7. Are the agents patented? Who can use these agents?
It is up to you if you want to patent your Agent the underlying innovation behind emergent coding is _feasible_ developer specialization. Emergent coding gives you the ability to contribute to a project without revealing your intellectual property thus creating prospects for repeat business; It renders software patents moot.
Who uses your Agents? Your Agents earn you BCH with each design contribution made. It would be wise to have your Agent open for business at all times and encourage everyone to use your design service.
8. Do I need to cooperate with Code Valley company all of the time in order to deploy Emergent Coding on my software projects, or can I do it myself, using documentation?
It is a decentralized system. There is no single point of failure. Code Valley intends to defend the emergent coding ecosystem from abuse and bad actors but that role is not on your critical path.
9. Let's say Electron Cash is an Emergent Coding project. I have found a critical bug in the binary. How do I report this bug, what does Jonald Fyookball need to do, assuming the buggy component is a "shared component" puled from EC "repositories"?
If you built Electron Cash with emergent coding it will have been created by combining several high level wallet features designed into your project by their respective Agents. Obviously behind the scenes there are many more contracts that these Agents will let and so on. For example the Cashbar combines just 16 high level Point-of-Sale features but ultimately results in more than 10,000 contracts in toto. Should one of these 10,000 make a design error, Jonald only sees the high level Agents he contracted. He can easily pinpoint which of these contractors are in breach. Similarly this contractor can easily pinpoint which of its sub-contractors is in breach and so on. The offender that breached their contract wherever in the project they made their contribution, is easily identified. For example, when my truck has a warranty problem, I do not contact the supplier of the faulty big-end bearing, I simply take it back to Mazda who in turn will locate the fault.
Finally "...assuming the buggy component is a 'shared component' puled from EC 'repositories'?" - There are no repositories or "shared component" in emergent coding.
10. What is your licensing/pricing model? Per project? Per developer? Per machine?
Your Agent charges for each design contribution it makes (ie per contract). The exact fee is up to you. The resulting software produced by EC is unencumbered. Code Valley's pricing model consists of a seat license but while we are still determining the exact policy, we feel the "Valley" (where Agents advertise their wares) should charge a small fee to help prevent gaming the catalogue and a transaction fee to provide an income in proportion to operations.
11. What is the basic set of applications I need in order to deploy full Emergent Coding in my software project? What is the function of each application? Daemons, clients, APIs, Frontends, GUIs, Operating systems, Databases, NoSQLs? A lot of details, please.
There's just one. You buy a license and are issued with our product called Pilot. You run Pilot (node) up on your machine and it will peer with the EC and BCH networks. You connect your browser to Pilot typically via localhost and you're in business. You can build software (including special kinds of software like Agents) by simply combining available features. Pilot allows you to specify the desired features and will manage the contracts and decentralized build process. It also gives you access to the "Valley" which is a decentralized advertising site that contains all the "business cards" of each Agent in the community, classified into categories for easy search.
If we are to make a step change in software design, inventing yet another HLL will not cut it. As Fred Brooks puts it, an essential change is needed.
12. How can I trust a binary when I can not see the source?
The Emergent Coding development model is very different to what you are use to. There are ways of arriving at a binary without Source code.
The Agents in emergent coding design their feature into your project without writing code. We can see the features we select but can not demonstrate the source as the design process doesn't use a HLL.
The trust model is also different. The bulk of the testing happens _before_ the project is designed not _after_. Emergent Coding produces a binary with very high integrity and arguably far more testing is done in emergent coding than in incumbent methods you are used to.
In emergent coding, your reputation is built upon the performance of your Agent.
If your Agent produces substandard features, you are simply creating an opportunity for a competitor to increase their market share at your expense.
Here are some points worth noting regarding bad actor Agents:
  1. An Agent is a specialist and in emergent coding is unaware of the project they are contributing to. If you are a bad actor, do you compromise every contract you receive? Some? None?
  2. Your client is relying on the quality of your contribution to maintain their own reputation. Long before any client will trust your contributions, they will have tested you to ensure the quality is at their required level. You have to be at the top of your game in your classification to even win business. This isn't some shmuck pulling your routine from a library.
  3. Each contract to your agent is provisioned. Ie you advertise in advance what collaborations you require to complete your design. There is no opportunity for a "sign a Bitcoin transaction" Agent to be requesting "send an HTTP request" collaborations.
  4. Your Agent never gets to modify code, it makes a design contribution rather than a code contribution. There is no opportunity to inject anything as the mechanism that causes the code to emerge is a higher order complexity of all Agent involvement.
  5. There is near perfect accountability in emergent coding. You are being contracted and paid to do the design. Every project you compromise has an arrow pointed straight at you should it be detected even years later.
Security is a whole other ball game in emergent coding and current rules do not necessarily apply.
13. Every time someone rebuilds their application, do they have to pay over again for all "design contributions"? (Or is the ability to license components at fixed single price for at least a limited period or even perpetually, supported by the construction (agent) process?)
You are paying for the design. Every time you build (or rebuild) an application, you pay the developers involved. They do not know they are "rebuilding". This sounds dire but its costs far less than you think and there are many advantages. Automation is very high with emergent coding so software design is completed for a fraction of the cost of incumbent design methods. You could perhaps rebuild many time before matching incumbent methods. Adding features is hard with incumbent methods "..very few late-stage additions are required before the code base transforms from the familiar to a veritable monster of missed schedules, blown budgets and flawed products" (Brooks Jr 1987) whereas with emergent coding adding a late stage feature requires a rebuild and hence seamless integration. With Emergent Coding, you can add an unlimited number of features without risking the codebase as there isn't one.
The second part of your question incorrectly assumes software is created from licensed components rather than created by paying Agents to design features into your project without any licenses involved.
14. In this construction process, is the vendor of a particular "design contribution" able to charge differential rates per their own choosing? e.g. if I wanted to charge a super-low rate to someone from a 3rd world country versus charging slightly more when someone a global multinational corporation wants to license my feature?
Yes. Developers set the price and policy of their Agent's service. The Valley (where your Agent is presently advertised) presently only supports a simple price policy. The second part of your question incorrectly assumes features are encumbered with licenses. A developer can provide their feature without revealing their intellectual property. A client has the right to reuse a developer's feature in another project but will find it uneconomical to do so.
15. Is "entirely free" a supported option during the contract negotiation for a feature?
Yes. You set the price of your Agent.
16. "There is no single point of failure." Right now, it seems one needs to register, license the construction tech etc. Is that going to change to a model where your company is not necessarily in that loop? If not, don't you think that's a single point of failure?
It is a decentralized development system. Once you have registered you become part of a peer-to-peer system. Code Valley has thought long and hard about its role and has chosen the reddit model. It will set some rules for your participation and will detect or remove bad actors. If, in your view, Code Valley becomes a bad actor, you have control over your Agent, private keys and IP, you can leave the system at any time.
17. What if I can't obtain a license because of some or other jurisdictional problem? Are you allowed to license the technology to anywhere in the world or just where your government allows it?
We are planning to operate in all 150 countries. As ec is peer-to-peer, Code Valley does not need to register as a digital currency exchange or the like. Only those countries banning BCH will miss out (until such times as BCH becomes the first global electronic cash system).
18.
For example the Cashbar combines just 16 high level Point-of-Sale features but ultimately results in more than 10,000 contracts in toto.
It seems already a reasonably complex application, so well done in having that as a demo.
Thank you.
19. I asked someone else a question about how it would be possible to verify whether an application (let's say one received a binary executable) has been built with your system of emergent consensus. Is this possible?
Yes of course. If you used ec to build an application, you can sign it and claim anything you like. Your client knows it came from you because of your signature. The design contributions making up the application are not signed but surprisingly there is still perfect accountability (see below).
20. I know it is possible to identify for example all source files and other metadata (like build environment) that went into constructing a binary, by storing this data inside an executable.
All metadata emergent coding is now stored offline. When your Agent completes a job, you have a log of the design agreements you made with your peers etc., as part of the log. If you are challenged at a later date for breaching a design contract, you can pull your logs to see what decisions you made, what sub-contracts were let etc. As every Agent has their own logs, the community as a whole has a completely trustless log of each project undertaken.
21. Is this being done with EC build products and would it allow the recipient to validate that what they've been provided has been built only using "design contributions" cryptographically signed by their providers and nothing else (i.e. no code that somehow crept in that isn't covered by the contracting process)?
The emergent coding trust model is very effective and has been proven in other industries. Remember, your Agent creates a feature in my project by actually combining smaller features contracted from other Agents, thus your reputation is linked to that of your suppliers. If Bosch makes a faulty relay in my Ford, I blame Ford for a faulty car not Bosch when my headlights don't work. Similarly, you must choose and vet your sub-contractors to the level of quality that you yourself want to project. Once these relationships are set up, it becomes virtually impossible for a bad actor to participate in the system for long or even from the get go.
22. A look at code generated and a surprising answer to why is every intermediate variable spilled?
Thanks to u/R_Sholes, this snippet from the actual code for: number = number * 10 + digitgenerated as a part of: sub read/integeboolean($, 0, 100) -> guess
; copy global to local temp variable 0x004032f2 movabs r15, global.current_digit 0x004032fc mov r15, qword [r15] 0x004032ff mov rax, qword [r15] 0x00403302 movabs rdi, local.digit 0x0040330c mov qword [rdi], rax ; copy global to local temp variable 0x0040330f movabs r15, global.guess 0x00403319 mov r15, qword [r15] 0x0040331c mov rax, qword [r15] 0x0040331f movabs rdi, local.num 0x00403329 mov qword [rdi], rax ; multiply local variable by constant, uses new temp variable for output 0x0040332c movabs r15, local.num 0x00403336 mov rax, qword [r15] 0x00403339 movabs rbx, 10 0x00403343 mul rbx 0x00403346 movabs rdi, local.num_times_10 0x00403350 mov qword [rdi], rax ; add local variables, uses yet another new temp variable for output 0x00403353 movabs r15, local.num_times_10 0x0040335d mov rax, qword [r15] 0x00403360 movabs r15, local.digit 0x0040336a mov rbx, qword [r15] 0x0040336d add rax, rbx 0x00403370 movabs rdi, local.num_times_10_plus_digit 0x0040337a mov qword [rdi], rax ; copy local temp variable back to global 0x0040337d movabs r15, local.num_times_10_plus_digit 0x00403387 mov rax, qword [r15] 0x0040338a movabs r15, global.guess 0x00403394 mov rdi, qword [r15] 0x00403397 mov qword [rdi], rax For comparison, an equivalent snippet in C compiled by clang without optimizations gives this output: imul rax, qword ptr [guess], 10 add rax, qword ptr [digit] mov qword ptr [guess], rax 
Collaborations at the byte layer of Agents result in designs that spill every intermediate variable.
Firstly, why this is so?
Agents from this early version only support one catch-all variable design when collaborating. Similar to a compiler when all registers contain variables, the compiler must make a decision to spill a register temporarily to main memory. The compiler would still work if it spilled every variable to main memory but would produce code that would be, as above, hopelessly inefficient.
However, by only supporting the catch-all portion of the protocol, the code valley designers were able to design, build and deploy these agents faster because an Agent needs fewer predicates in order to participate in these simpler collaborations.
The protocol involved however, can have many "Policies" besides the catch-all default policy (Agents can collaborate over variables designed to be on the stack, or, as is common for intermediate variables, designed to use a CPU register, and so forth).
This example highlights one of the very exciting aspects of emergent coding. If we now add a handful of additional predicates to a handful of these byte layer agents, henceforth ALL project binaries will be 10x smaller and 10x faster.
Finally, there can be many Agents competing for market share at each of classification. If these "gumby" agents do not improve, you can create a "smarter" competitor (ie with more predicates) and win business away from them. Candy from a baby. Competition means the smartest agents bubble to the top of every classification and puts the entire emergent coding platform on a fast path for improvement. Contrast this with incumbent libraries which does not have a financial incentive to improve. Just wait until you get to see our production system.
23. How hard can an ADD Agent be?
Typically an Agent's feature is created by combining smaller features from other Agents. The smallest features are so devoid of context and complexity they can be rendered by designing a handful of bytes in the project binary. Below is a description of one of these "byte" layer Agents to give you an idea how they work.
An "Addition" Agent creates the feature of "adding two numbers" in your project (This is an actual Agent). That is, it contributes to the project design a feature such that when the project binary is delivered, there will be an addition instruction somewhere in it that was designed by the contract that was let to this Agent.
If you were this Agent, for each contract you received, you would need to collaborate with peers in the project to resolve vital requirements before you can proceed to design your binary "instruction".
Each paid contract your Agent receives will need to participate in at least 4 collaborations within the design project. These are:
  1. Input A collaboration
  2. Input B collaboration
  3. Result collaboration
  4. Construction site collaboration
You can see from the collaborations involved how your Agent can determine the precise details needed to design its instruction. As part of the contract, the Addition Agent will be provisioned with contact details so it can join these collaborations. Your Agent must collaborate with other stakeholders in each collaboration to resolve that requirement. In this case, how a variable will be treated. The stakeholders use a protocol to arrive at an Agreement and share the terms of the agreement. For example, the stakeholders of collaboration “Input A” may agree to treat the variable as an signed 64bit integer, resolve to locate it at location 0x4fff2, or alternatively agree that the RBX register should be used, or agree to use one of the many other ways a variable can be represented. Once each collaboration has reached an agreement and the terms of that agreement distributed, your Agent can begin to design the binary instruction. The construction site collaboration is where you will exactly place your binary bytes.
The construction site protocol is detailed in the whitepaper and is some of the magic that allows the decentralized development system to deliver the project binary. The protocol consists of 3 steps,
  1. You request space in the project binary be reserved.
  2. You are notified of the physical address of your requested space.
  3. You delver the the binary bytes you designed to fill the reserved space.
Once the bytes are returned your Agent can remove the job from its work schedule. Job done, payment received, another happy customer with a shiny ADD instruction designed into their project binary.
Note:
  1. Observe how it is impossible for this ADD Agent to install a backdoor undetected by the client.
  2. Observe how the Agent isn’t linking a module, or using a HLL to express the binary instruction.
  3. Observe how with just a handful of predicates you have a working "Addition" Agent capable of designing the Addition Feature into a project with a wide range of collaboration agreements.
  4. Observe how this Agent could conceivably not even design-in an ADD instruction if one of the design time collaboration agreements was a literal "1" (It would design in an increment instruction). There is even a case where this Agent may not deliver any binary to build its feature into your project!
24. How does EC arrive at a project binary without writing source code?
Devs using EC combine features to create solutions. They don't write code. EC devs contract Agents which design the desired features into their project for a fee. Emergent coding uses a domain specific contracting language (called pilot) to describe the necessary contracts. Pilot is not a general purpose language. As agents create their features by similarly combining smaller features contracted from peer, your desired features may inadvertently result in thousands of contracts. As it is agents all the way down, there is no source code to create the project binary.
Traditional: Software requirements -> write code -> compile -> project binary (ELF).
Emergent coding: Select desired features -> contract agents -> project binary (ELF).
Agents themselves are created the same way - specify the features you want your agent to have, contract the necessary agents for those features and viola - agent project binary (ELF).
25. How does the actual binary code that agents deliver to each other is written?
An agent never touches code. With emergent coding, agents contribute features to a project, and leave the project binary to emerge as the higher-order complexity of their collective effort. Typically, agents “contribute” their feature by causing smaller features to be contributed by peers, who in turn, do likewise. By mapping features to smaller features delivered by these peers, agents ensure their feature is delivered to the project without themselves making a direct code contribution.
Peer connections established by these mappings serve to both incrementally extend a temporary project “scaffold” and defer the need to render a feature as a code contribution. At the periphery of the scaffold, features are so simple they can be rendered as a binary fragment with these binary fragments using the information embodied by the scaffold to guide the concatenation back along the scaffold to emerge as the project binary - hence the term Emergent Coding.
Note the scaffold forms a temporary tree-like structure which allows virtually all the project design contracts to be completed in parallel. The scaffold also automatically limits an agent's scope to precisely the resources and site for their feature. It is why it is virtually impossible for an agent to install a "back door" or other malicious code into the project binary.
submitted by nlovisa to EmergentCoding [link] [comments]

Variability Encryption

Variability Encryption
I created a mostly pseudo code of the encryption side of things, there will be some parts that refer to below because my lack of programming language training/skills and such. The Decryption part will have to come at a different time.

But in here I will discuss the reasons it works. First it is Symmetric Encryption, as the same key will encrypt and decrypt. Decryption notes to come later when I have time.

1) Plain Text/Known Text
A request for me to use a known text format was made, I saw it but have been working 60-70 hours a week and also trying to create the pseudo code. I can tell you that using a known text then modifying it wont work. Here is why: The Combinations will create a ternary base, the juggle and shuffle are designed to increase disorder. If there was one run of each process and the order was shuffle, juggle, combinations then it would be plausible that there could be a pattern which shows up. However the repetitions of the three cycles and the key derived pattern of each process inside the three cycles will create a very severe jumble of 1's and 0's even if our source was entirely 0's or 1's to start with.

2) Block Cipher attacks
The way the entire system works we have no real identifiable blocks to work with. The key is read in a dynamic manner which results in repetition use of the key to start at different portions of the key. Further the combinations phase has limits to string length but those limits allow a lot of variability in length of a specific portion being applied to. Inside the string lengths we further have a lot of variability in the number of combinations and the salts further shake up the variabilities in many manners. There is no block as it where except where the Shuffle occurs (well kinda) and that is not the primary function of the system. In theory it may be necessary to make blocks for the shuffle portion but those blocks will not function in the same manner as existing blocks which will require testing for each and every possible variation.

3) Attempts to use a similar key (or part of a known key)
These attacks of course can happen when there is a man in the middle attack where the key is actually made up of a long-term key between users, a mid-term key, and a short term key such as the Signal App uses. Or however many versions of multiple key portions. So assuming your man in the middle attack got half the key you try to apply methods to use it to get in. The first problem is that key lengths for multiple key portions does not need to have a fixed length. The idea of a fixed key length is laughable considering the methods used in variability encryption. A variable key length of 32 to 64 bits where the accessed portion makes up a fair to sizable portion thereof does not give them enough information to recreate the key size with any reliability without trying all possible sizes. Having a small key is not detrimental to the entire system either, wherein the difficulty increases with key size size admittedly but the variability system can start at 32 bits without issue.

4) Difficulty in Brute Forcing increases with file size
The Jugglee routine definitively increases the problem for decryption. Since it can apply to the whole of the file size at once without too much predicted issue this means that an enemy operator must process the whole file for three of the 9 processes and they have to accurately judge when the juggle process was used each of the three times. The combination stage dramatically increases difficulty as well since it can encode a lot of data in the larger string sizes thus making accurate string length detection a necessity. The shuffle is by far the easiest portion to decrypt where it is in theory but the other stages make accessing it properly very difficult

5) The key has other strengths
Due to the way the key works, where it identifies different string lengths and where it can be added infinitely to itself with a low possibility of exact repetition, this makes the key weaponized on its own. The attacker will require knowing how many repetitions of the key occurred and where the individual key portions were spliced properly to be able to use the information.

6) Statistical Attacks
There is, admittedly, a bit of a possibility of weakness to Statistical Attacks. The weakness however is very low versus the total capabilities of the system. You would need to know a significant portion of the key and have a known text example. Given both of those at the same time you could, in theory, be able to attempt to derive the sequence of the processes with enough effort. However I would say this effort will still be harder by far than AES 512.

7) Brute Force
Combinations make for a large spread you need to test, the juggle makes for tests to be done three times over the whole of the file, the shuffle makes you waste time and energy trying to derive the proper order of things. If you encrypt a megabyte, a not unheard of size (sarcasm), the attacker must account for all possible key lengths, all possible key variations, and because the way the combinations work they must also be able to predict to a fair extent the source of the data, yes the data itself helps create the encrypted results thanks to the combinations system. Thus the processor time would be in far excess of the time it would normally require for every iteration of the possible key and at all possible file sizes using the combinatorics, thus making for far in excess of processor time to crunch the whole code ^3. It becomes factorial in of fact which should definitely scare the crap out of cryptologists.

8)Yes some attacks will always succeed.
You can buy the password, you can beat the password out of someone, you can probably derive the sequences if you can watch the processor requirements, getting into the RAM while it is working will get you far, and so forth. However without full information, say it is an ATM speaking to the bank server and you are in the middle but the encryption code is hardwired, you will get nothing for it.

9) While a one time pad is obviously going to be the strongest the methods involved in Variability Encryption leave no doubt that if right now, right now, the atoms in the sun were made into a Super Computer (all of them) and the power doubled annually, a petabyte would never be successfully cracked before entropy destroys everything. AES 512 cannot say that with those standards, and yes I am bragging but dammit I feel good having found a statistical method that frankly cannot ever be decrypted with brute force unless the file size is small and the key small and the attacker knows that. By small I mean like 8 bits small or some silly small size like that.

10) Patent and Patent Pending. The lawyer tells me I have to include that in my works, I listen to my lawyer. If you want in you can negotiate with me.

11) I think, now I do not have proof as I have been exclusively working on this encryption routine and the other patent applications, that AES can be exploited due to the high storage potential of combinatorics. It will need a lot of my time but it feels right. But again not going down that squirrel hole until I get real code that shows how the system works so I can take it before some very rich individuals or one of the other Patent Applications gets attention as well.


_________________ PSEUDO CODE (Kinda) _____________________

Pseudo Code - Variability Encryption // Variability is key, there is nothing else. This won't be real Pseudo Code but it should suffice for most here. //
Start: Load Key, to be called Key_Card Load File to Encrypt, to be called Step_Zero // Process_1 = Combin_First // // Process_2 = Combin_More // // Process_3 = Juggle_Scramble // // Process_4 = Shuffle_Mixup // // Process_5 = Combin_Restore // // Process_6 = Juggle_Restore // // Process_7 = Shuffle_Restore // // Process_8 = Ternary_Binary // // Process_9 = Binary_Ternary // // The processes are the main methods involved in first encrypting, then in decryption // Hash Key_Card, to be called Hash_Key Process: // Effort is to get a value from 1 to 6 to generate a pattern of the processes above, assume if there is an error another process assigns a value to each via using the key to generate an option that is quasi random // Value of Hash_One = If Hash_Key ends with 7,8,9, or 0 divide by ten and drop decimal, else use last digit. Value of Hash_Two = If the first digit in Hash_Key is a 7,8, or 9 then (look at the next digit, if next digit is a one then look to the next digit) else use digit. Value of Hash_Three = If RoundDown (Divide Hash_Key by 5) = 7,8,9, or 0 then if (RoundDown (Divide Hash_Key by 4) = 7,8,9, or 0 then (RoundDown (Divide Hash_Key by 6)) else use the digit. Order_One uses Process_1, Process_2, Process_3, Process_4. Order_Two uses Process_2, Process_3, Process_4, Order_Three uses Process_2, Process_3, Process_4, Process_8. Process_1 = a, Process_2 = b, Process_3 = c, Process_4 = d, process_8 = e. //The order of each of Order_One, Order_Two, and Order_Three get determined here // Order_One = if Hash_One =1 then acd, else if Hash_One = 2 then adc else if Hash_One = 3 then cda else if Hash_One = 4 then cad else if Hash_One = 5 then dac else if Hash_One =6 then dca. Order_Two = if Hash_One =1 then bcd, else if Hash_One = 2 then bdc else if Hash_One = 3 then cdb else if Hash_One = 4 then cbd else if Hash_One = 5 then dbc else if Hash_One =6 then dcb. Order_Three = if Hash_One =1 then bcde else if Hash_One = 2 then bdce else if Hash_One = 3 then cdbe else if Hash_One = 4 then cbde else if Hash_One = 5 then dbce else if Hash_One =6 then dcbe. // Note that this makes the order of the processes per each of 3 distinct rotations difficult to predict and allows for an initial change into ternary during the first combinatorial phase and returns to binary at the end of the process // Create file: Process_Run Process_Run = Step_Zero { // Process_1 // Load Process_Run Load Key_Card //The basis for the keycard is simple, we identify how many bits we are going to use for the string length, then we use that to identify the possible length of the combinations portion of the key afterwards, we then see if there is going to be a salt and if there is a salt we read the next 3 bits. // Load last 3 bits of Hash_Key, find the Decimal +1 and save as Hash_Ke1 // This will result in a 1 to 8 value // // Declaring a few things that will be used but will be modified in the following processes // Str_Len = 0 Key_Run = Key_Card Salt_True = 0 Com_Pare = 0 Com_Cnt = 0 Str_Cnt = 0 Chk_Salt = 0 // Replacement_File.txt // // Replacement_File.txt will be a separate post for people, it will be a large file which will have a replacement table based upon Combinatorics in it. It will be designed upon a variety of sizes but it will not have a full and entire table, it should be sufficient for the purposes of people here to understand how it works however // { If Hash_Ke1 >0 & <3 then Str\_Len = 4, if Hash\_Ke1 > 2 & < 6 then Str_Len = 5, if Hash_Ke1 > 5 & < 9 then Str_Len = 8 } { If Key_Run does not have sufficient length then Key_Run = Key_Run + Key_Card Remove Str_Len bits from Key_Run and identify the Decimal + 1 value of these bits. This will be called Str_Cnt Com_Cnt = RoundDown (Log( Str_Cnt / 2) / Log (2)) If Com_Cnt < 4 then Com_Cnt = 4 //Next step helps analyzes Com_Cnt to see if it is small enough, reduces the length if it is not // { While //I am creating a repeating sequence that repeats until the if then is true // Load Decimal + 1 of Com_Cnt bits from Key_Run, value is Com_Pare If Com_Pare > RoundDown (Str_Cnt / 2) then Com_Cnt = Com_Cnt -1 else End } Remove Com_Cnt bits from Key_Run // The purpose of this code above is to get the decimal of the first portion of our string length bits and to get a decimal amount for our combinations count which will be half that, or less, of the decimal for the string length. // Chk_Salt = Remove 1 bit from Key_Run If Chk_Salt = 1 then remove 3 bits from Key_Run, these three bits become Salt_True Using Com_Pare identify Replacement_File.txt table section for the Ternary Replacement. Remove the identified bits from Process_Run as identified by the table inside Replacement_File.txt in match to the corresponding binary. Call the result Out_Put1 // This is using the table to identify a length section appropriate for the replacement then identifying the string section inside that would match our source which will then indicate what to replace it with // If Chk_Salt = 1 then ************* SALTS NEED TO GO HERE *********** // Some salts occur before the next process, some would after the next process. I am going to make a separate post about the salts // Fill Empty Spots in Out_Put1 by using appropriate length of Process_Run }
{ // Process_2 is very similar to Process_1, main differences will be it is already running in Ternary. // Load Process_Run Load Key_Card
Load first 5 bits of Hash_Key, find the Decimal +1 and save as Hash_Ke2
Str_Len = 0 Key_Run = Key_Card Salt_True = 0 Com_Pare = 0 Com_Cnt = 0 Str_Cnt = 0 Chk_Salt = 0 // Replacement_File.txt //
{ If Hash_Ke2 > 0 & < 4 then Str_Len = 4, If Hash_Ke2 > 3 & < 9 then Str_Len = 5, If Hash_Ke2 > 8 & < 14 then Str_Len = 6, If Hash_Ke2 > 13 & < 19 then Str_Len = 7, If Hash_Ke2 > 18 & < 24 then Str_Len = 8, If Hash_Ke2 > 23 & < 29 then Str_Len = 9, If Hash_Ke2 > 28 & < 32 then Str_Len = 10. //Longer possible string lengths in follow up repetitions, increases difficulty in statistical analysis and brute forcing significantly. // } { If Key_Run does not have sufficient length then Key_Run = Key_Run + Key_Card Remove Str_Len bits from Key_Run and identify the Decimal + 1 value of these bits. This will be called Str_Cnt Com_Cnt = RoundDown (Log( Str_Cnt / 2) / Log (2)) If Com_Cnt < 4 then Com_Cnt = 4
{ While
Load Decimal + 1 of Com_Cnt bits from Key_Run, value is Com_Pare If Com_Pare > RoundDown (Str_Cnt / 2) then Com_Cnt = Com_Cnt -1 else End } Remove Com_Cnt bits from Key_Run
Chk_Salt = Remove 1 bit from Key_Run If Chk_Salt = 1 then remove 3 bits from Key_Run, these three bits become Salt_True Using Com_Pare identify Replacement_File.txt table section for the Ternary Replacement. Remove the identified bits from Process_Run as identified by the table inside Replacement_File.txt in match to the corresponding binary. Call the result Out_Put1
If Chk_Salt = 1 then ************* SALTS NEED TO GO HERE *********** // Some salts occur before the next process, some would after the next process. I am going to make a separate post about the salts // Fill Empty Spots in Out_Put1 by using appropriate length of Process_Run } { // Process_3 // // The Juggle Routine increases the net cost for brute force attempts to total processor time * 2^n where n is the number of bits in the entire file to be encrypted. This is per cycle involved and if they get the order of processes correct. // Hash_Mark = Hash of Key_Card Len_Mark = Length of Hash_Mark divided by 2 rounded down Hash_Mark = Hash_Mark - Len_Mark Sort_Hash = Last 3 bits of Hash_Mark Done_Hash = Decimal +1 of Sort_Hash Hash_Mark = Hash_Mark minus Sort_Hash Trig_Cnt = Last three bits of Hash_Mark Jug_Start = 0 Tri_Dec = Decimal + 1 of Trig_Cnt Trig_1 = 0 Trig_2 = 0 Trig_3 = 0 Trig_4 = 0 Trig_5 = 0 Trig_6 = 0 Trig_7 = 0 Trig_8 = 0 Trig_? = 0 // see lower notes //
{ If Process_Run is Ternary then run sub_prss2, else run sub_prss2 If Done_Hash < 3 then Done_Hash = 3 // Examines to see if the system is in Ternary, should be obvious // } { // sub_prss1 // // Trig_Dec and Done_Hash are the main functions to determine length and number of triggers. // Load Process_Run Trig_? = ? // The above needs to be incremental in growth for Trig_1 to Trig 8, or make some sort of array? // { While // Trigger making //
Trig_Dec> 0 ; Read first three bits of key, if Trig_? = 000 then 00, if Trig_? = 001 then 01, if Trig_? = 010 then 10, if Trig_? = 100 then 02, if Trig_? = 110 then 20, if Trig_? = 101 then 12, if Trig_? = 011 then 21, if Trig_? = 111 then 11 // Note this is the extremely simple version // } { While Process_Run still has bits repeat sequence Remove Done_Hash trits from Process_Run, These are First_Trig Read First_Trig for first match to Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder after match to Sec_Trig. Read Sec_Trig in reverse to find match for Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder of after match to Thrd_Trig Read Thrd_Trig for first match to Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder after match to Frth_Trig. Read Frth_Trig in reverse to find match for Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder of after match to Fith_Trig Read Fith_Trig for first match to Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder after match to Sxth_Trig. Read Sxth_Trig in reverse to find match for Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder of after match to Svth_Trig Read Svth_Trig for first match to Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder after match to Egth_Trig. // Whatever remains will go only into the 8th set in this version // End While when Process_Run is empty } { Process_Run = Reverse order of data for Sec_Trig, Frth_Trig, Sxth_Trg, Egth_Trig } }
{ // sub_prss2 // Key_Fun = Key_Card Trig_? = ? Load Process_Run { While Trig_Dec> 0 ; Remove Three bits from Key_Fun, becomes Trig_? //incremental increase function // // Design may use all strings as keys if odds happen correct with Binary, this is an extremely simple version // } { While Process_Run still has bits repeat sequence Remove Done_Hash bits from Process_Run, These are First_Trig Read First_Trig for first match to Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder after match to Sec_Trig. Read Sec_Trig in reverse to find match for Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder of after match to Thrd_Trig Read Thrd_Trig for first match to Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder after match to Frth_Trig. Read Frth_Trig in reverse to find match for Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder of after match to Fith_Trig Read Fith_Trig for first match to Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder after match to Sxth_Trig. Read Sxth_Trig in reverse to find match for Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder of after match to Svth_Trig Read Svth_Trig for first match to Trig_? values, when match then remove remainder after match to Egth_Trig. // Whatever remains will go only into the 8th set in this version // End While when Process_Run is empty } { Process_Run = Reverse order of data for Sec_Trig, Frth_Trig, Sxth_Trg, Egth_Trig } } { Process_4 // Shuffle Process // // Shuffle is designed to just swap a key derived sized length of trits or bits //
Read Key_Card first three bits. This becomes Shfl_Len Shfl_Dec = Decimal + 1 of Shfl_Len If Shfl_Dec < 2 then Shfl_Dec = 2 // Above is how we decide what length of blocks are being replaced. // Totl_Left = Shfl_Dec Bin_Bin = 0 Key_Shfl = Key_Card { If Totl_Left > 2 then Bin_Bin = Log(Totl_Left) / Log(2) // As if using the log function in MS Word // Key_Req = Remove Bin_Bin bits from Key_Shfl Shfl_? = Decimal of Key_Req
// Problem Defining this. I will make a separate post showing how this would look but not how it would work in Pseudo Code // } }
// Decryption to come when I have the time, hopefully it is obvious to some //
___________________________________________SALTS LIST____________________________
SALTS
During the combinatorics phase there can be additional methods, known as salts, to add to the source which will confound an attempt to break the encryption. These salts can be modified to use binary or ternary as needed.

The salts are:
Salt 1: add combination(s) at
This salt will be triggered by a 000 in the key, the next two to four bits of the key will determine where in the current set the combination will be fake whereas the length of the combination string determines the required bits.

Salt 2: ended combination, start new combination early
This salt will be triggered automatically when possible, it will not allow a previous combination to break size rules, aka 4 minimum string length and a maximum of 50% combinations inside the string length. This increases security to prevent detecting this salt. This salt will not be used if there is a marker for another salt (This one is disabled in the example as I am only human).

Salt 3: Simulate multiple smaller combinations
This salt will be triggered by a 001 in the key, if the combination is under 8 then it defaults to NO SALT, else it defaults to two distinct combination strings where you divide by 2, round down for the first, then remainder for 2nd to obtain the string sizes. Possible alternative includes using a marker in the key to allow for more divisions provided the string length is long enough.

Salt 4: Skip Combination entirely
This salt will be triggered by a 010 in the key. The size will be determined by the previous combination string lengths, if under 8 then it will be 10 string length, if the previous was over 8 string length it will be 6 string length. Also it is possible to use a math formula to do a size variable, or a hash value, or.. Similar to 8 except we still use the full length of the listed string.

Salt 5: Skip real combinations, insert fake combination
This salt will be triggered by a 100 in the key. The size will be determined by the previous combination string lengths, if under 8 then it will be 10 string length, if the previous was over 8 string length it will be 6 string length.

Salt 6: Can use 2 dimensions
This salt will be triggered by a 011 in the key. This results in a combination going down instead of left to right. This is a complexity issue, I've plans for up/down but is the encryption community ready for this complexity? This key can be avoided if the complexity is too much, it is unlikely that by making blocks for this function that any existing block attacks could find vulnerabilities to exploit.

Salt 7: This will invert the binary values in the next combination
This salt will be triggered by a 101 in the key.

Salt 8: In between fixed length combinations, where the leading combination string ends with a combination location, and the next string starts with a combination location you can put a complete blank string. This is contrary to 4 where we are using the assigned string length in full instead of a variable. This salt will be triggered by a 110 in the key.

Salt 9: This salt, if we are using ternary, alters which of the 0, 1, 2 values is being used to encode the combinations and what is doing in binary. This is a permanent flip or a temporary flip as desired or as built into function. This salt will be triggered by a 111 in the key.
________________________________________________Example Tables (paste from Excel)_______________________________


https://preview.redd.it/fjtp9f4na5931.png?width=677&format=png&auto=webp&s=51bdfe2144d8c04cfc3c9dea42ef6b554344d9bd
submitted by PHDEinstein007 to encryption [link] [comments]

MAME 0.204

MAME 0.204

After a busy four weeks, we’re ready to present the hotly-anticipated MAME 0.204 release. The most exciting stuff this month is definitely on the computer emulation side. We’ve added dozens of working cartridges to the BBC ROM software list, and ROMs required by expansion devices are handled more elegantly. Our HP9000/300 series emulation just keeps getting better: it’s now possible to install and use HP-UX 9, with X11 and the Vue desktop environment on an emulated HP9000/370 with accelerated window drawing and Ethernet networking support. There’s also been some progress on the road to Silicon Graphics workstation emulation. On top of that, we’re seeing preliminary emulation of standalone X Window System terminals.
Thanks to MAME’s modular, device-oriented architecture, improvements for one machine go on to benefit other machines using similar hardware. The Motorola 68k memory management unit improvements that allow HP-UX to run on the HP9000/300 series will also benefit Mac, NeXT and early Sun systems. The same AMD LANCE Ethernet controller is used in HP and Sun workstations, X11 terminals, the Amiga A2065 Zorro card, and numerous applications. This gives us a wealth of test cases, and a virtuous cycle where progress on one system can lead to a breakthrough on another.
With this release, all Tiger game.com games are fully playable. Two more Nintendo Game & Watch titles, Climber and Tropical Fish, have been emulated. XaviX-based TV game emulation continues to progress steadily: numerous e-kara karaoke cartridges have been dumped, preliminary sound output emulation has been implemented (sorry, no microphone support yet, but you can hear the tunes), and more systems have inputs connected.
Graphical effects in the bootleg arcade driving game Blomby Car have been improved, and bad dumps of graphics ROMs for Abnormal Check and the Korean version of Prehistoric Isle have been replaced. As always, you’ll enjoy support for more alternate versions of arcade games (including a version of Pinball Action that shows scores on external LED displays), bug fixes, and general emulation improvements.
You can read a more detailed account of this month’s changes in the whatsnew.txt file, or get the source and Windows binary packages from the download page.

MAMETesters Bugs Fixed

New working machines

New working clones

Machines promoted to working

New machines marked as NOT_WORKING

New clones marked as NOT_WORKING

New working software list additions