What is Bitcoin Mining? How Does it Actually Work? (2020

XMG - Coin of the Magi

Coin of the Magi is a peer-to-peer global currency that enables instant payments to anyone in the world. XMG utilizes proof-of-work and proof-of-stake systems and is CPU and eco focussed - rewards reduce as hash increases.
[link]

Make your own stakebox. Ultimate beginners guide how to compile any wallet on AARCH64 (Raspbery pi and other SBC)

I contemplated to wrote this for a long time, so it's finally time.
As you know a lot of altcoins uses PoS (Proof-of-stake) way of "mining" coins. Which basically means, that you hold coins on your unlocked wallet and you are receiving stakes as a reward. This requires very little power and it can bring you a lot of rewards, at just 10W from the wall.
So first I am using latest Raspbian on RPI4B 4GB in this example.Setting up Raspbian is not part of this process since it's very well documented. I recommend to change user from pi to something else due to security concerns and you can also do other stuff just search "security Raspberry PI" and you find a lot of articles, but this is not the focus of this guide.
I know there are a lot of guides on the internet, but I am using like 5 sources, so it's compiled what other people wrote and some of my research.
I am using AnyDesk insted of SSH or VNC server, because it works it's ligthweit and it just works.
So after you see the gui of Raspbian, just launch terminal (CTRL + ALT + T) and do basic thing:
sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade
Than press Y and let it run, after is finished, we need to prepare so dependency packages. Since most of the wallets using Berkeley DB 4.8 we need to obtain it.
So in terminal wrote:
cd cd Downloads wget http://download.oracle.com/berkeley-db/db-4.8.30.NC.tar.gz tar -xzvf db-4.8.30.NC.tar.gz cd db-4.8.30.NC/build_unix ../dist/configure --enable-cxx make sudo make install 
So wait unti it's finished and than you can delete files in Downloads folder in gui or use:
sudo rm -r [folder] 
So next thing we need to install some libraries.
sudo apt-get install git build-essential libtool autotools-dev autoconf pkg-config libssl-dev libcrypto++-dev libevent-dev libminiupnpc-dev libgmp-dev libboost-all-dev devscripts libdb++-dev libsodium-dev 
And pres y and let it run. After that another set of libraries:
sudo apt-get install libqt5gui5 libqt5core5a libqt5dbus5 qttools5-dev qttools5-dev-tools libprotobuf-dev protobuf-compiler libcrypto++- dev libminiupnpc-dev qt5-default 
And then again pres y and let it run. Some wallets need older version of libssl1.0-dev, so for for safe compiling we install that as well:
sudo apt-get install libssl1.0-dev 
Pres y and let it run. Warning don't use sudo-apt get autoremove, since it would wipe this package, since it's old.
Next thing we are going to obtain Bitcoin PPA filest, which can be done like this.
cd /etc/apt/sources.list.d/ sudo nano bitcoin.list 
Paste this in there:
deb-src http://ppa.launchpad.net/bitcoin/bitcoin/ubuntu artful main 
And CTRL+X and than y, then do this:
sudo apt-key adv --keyserver hkp://keyserver.ubuntu.com:80 --recv C70EF1F0305A1ADB9986DBD8D46F45428842CE5E sudo apt-get update 
So now we are ready for compiling. So we are going create folders. CD yourself where this folder should be situated, if you for example have plugged in some external drive. Then:
mkdir Crypto cd Crypto 
And then we have to choose wallet which you want to compile. I am choosing Streamies (STRMS) as an example, since it's pretty good coin for staking. So:
mkdir Streamies cd Streamies 
Then go to the github page and click on the green button on the left and click copy to clipboard, which gives you git link.
git clone https://github.com/Streamies/Streamies.git 
Watch the output folder which it creates, it's stated in the first two lines and copy then by highliting the text and CTRL+SHIFT+C copy it to your clipboard.
cd Streamies (this is that git created folder) ./autogen.sh ./configure CPPFLAGS="-I/uslocal/BerkeleyDB.4.8/include -O2" LDFLAGS="-L/uslocal/BerkeleyDB.4.8/lib" sudo make (this could take hours) sudo make install 
And you are done, files is going to be in folder /uslocal/bin (DO NOT delete git created folder, because you are going to need it for faster compiling, when wallet get's and update.)
cd /uslocal/bin 
Now you can list files by:
ls 
And then you can copy/move them where ever you want by using:
sudo mv * [destination full path] 
Let it run and go back to folder where you move those files.
sudo chmod +x streamies-qt (since we want to run wallet) 
In most cases compiled files are going to in format of "shared library" so we need to create script to run it. Open up a text editor from gui or through nano. And paste this to that file:
#!/bin/bash ./streamies-qt 
And save it as a sh file, for example run.sh. Then we need to make it runnable so:
sudo chmod +x run.sh 
Now to run it, it's just:
./run.sh 
And here we are glorious GUI wallet appears and you are done, you can paste blockchain, wallet.dat from other sources, so this migration is pretty easy and you, if you have it on for exaple flash disk.
So this is basic how to compile QT wallets on AARCH64. I am running 7 wallets, 2 of those are Masternodes and RPI 4B 4GB would handle way more, I am at best on half of my RAM.
Some wallets need more package, but it's not much of and issue, since compiling stops and you just copy paste nape which is missing put it in the google and add "apt-get" after the name of package and you are going to see, what is the name of the packages so it can be retreived from package assinstant aka apt-get. So basically:
sudo apt-get install [package name] 
Then press y and again wrote:
sudo make 
This process is going to continue where it was left off, so nothing is going to run from beginning.
Updating wallets is basically exactly same, just repeat steps from "git clone" and after that proceed as it was written above.
So I hope this helps some of you, to use this at home and not on some VPS, if you are anxious as me, to host my wallets on remote server.
submitted by M1chlCZ to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale AwardsBlock rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB TokensSecond place: 100,000 CKB TokensThird place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: LotteryAt the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules:We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
DatesStart Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to ParticipateTo start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
TermsTerms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
submitted by totorun to gpumining [link] [comments]

BFGMiner Garlicoin tutorial

Some people have been having trouble with BFGMiner for Garlicoin, so I made a tutorial. This will only work on a Unix-based shell.
I have been informed that the Pastebin may not be beginner-friendly, so I will help anyone who needs it.
Thanks to ChilledGrease for their help with making the tutorial.
  1. Download and extract http://www.digip.org/jansson/releases/jansson-2.10.tar.gz
  2. cd to the folder and run ./configure && make && make install
  3. Download and extract https://github.com/troydhanson/uthash/archive/master.zip
  4. Download and extract http://luke.dashjr.org/programs/bitcoin/files/bfgmine4.10.6/bfgminer-4.10.6.zip
  5. cd to the bfgminer folder and run env CFLAGS='-I../uthash-mastesrc' ./configure --enable-opencl --enable-scrypt --enable-cpumining, assuming uthash-master is the directory you extracted in part 3.
  6. Run make && make install. If it says you do not have permission to do something, run sudo make install and enter your password.
  7. Set up garlicoind and its config. There is a tutorial here.
  8. Run garlicoind.
  9. Run this command: bfgminer --scrypt -o localhost:42070 -u [username in garlicoind config] -p [password] --no-longpoll --no-stratum --coinbase-addr [your address] -S opencl:auto
Citations:
https://askubuntu.com/a/386372
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=1260729.0
Edit: Adding citations section as well as CPU mining for those of you who don't want to or can't use a GPU.
Edit 2: Clarifications
Edit 3: Removed CPU mining as I cannot currently get it to work.
Edit 4: I don't want to make a 100000 character long post so I'm not gonna put this anymore.
Edit again: I can't get BFGMiner to work with the new scrypt:2048 algorithm, so this will not work for the time being.
submitted by U8336Tea to garlicoin [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by Lilianli87 to EtherMining [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by ClareKuang to cryptomining [link] [comments]

$1500 (plus or minus $100) windows/linux gaming PC

Hey guys, as the holiday season approaches I'm looking to treat myself to a nice PC as I approach 6 months with a real salaried job. Unfortunately I'm involved in a pretty intense academic program right up until Christmas, and then I'm moving to Texas, which doesn't leave me with a lot of time to do research. I've been looking into parts, experimenting with custom builds on pcpartpicker and such, but I just don't know what hardware works best in tandem with others, or the relative quality of different brands, and I don't have all the time in the world to keep looking into it. I have exactly 0 experience with PCs in general, as I've been raised on Apple laptops. I was hoping you all could help me out.
What will you be doing with this PC? Be as specific as possible, and include specific games or programs you will be using.
Honestly, I just want to play Skyrim with the most computationally expensive boob mods out there. Just kidding. But the games I have in mind are all big RPG open world types -- Skyrim, Witcher 3, Fallout, and eventually Starfield and the new Elder Scrolls in a couple years. Maybe some Fortnite until I get sick of getting dunked on by 12 year olds.
I won't be doing any video editing or sharing, or any bitcoin mining or shit like that. Sometimes I like to program, did a lot in college, but I'm sure any CPU y'all recommend can handle whatever obnoxious O(nn) loops I accidentally create.
What is your maximum budget before rebates/shipping/taxes?
$1500, but I prefer to spend my money on quality goods that will perform well and last a while, so I am willing to go a little over if it makes enough difference in the quality of the machine.
When do you plan on building/buying the PC? Note: beyond a week or two from today means any build you receive will be out of date when you want to buy.
I'm planning on keeping a close eye on prices as holiday sales approach, tracking them on Amazon and such. I will probably order parts around Christmas and assemble the machine after New Years.
What, exactly, do you need included in the budget? (ToweOS/monitokeyboard/mouse/etc)
I need everything. All I have right now is a mac laptop. I intend to remote desktop it or integrate it into the build somehow, but I don't have faith I'll be able to use any of its hardware.
Which country (and state/province) will you be purchasing the parts in? If you're in US, do you have access to a Microcenter location?
I'll be purchasing in either Florida, Texas, or Tennessee. I can stop by the Microcenter in Houston.
Will you be overclocking? If yes, are you interested in overclocking right away, or down the line? CPU and/or GPU?
I'd be interested in overclocking if it meant extending the useful lifespan of the units in a few years time.
Are there any specific features or items you want/need in the build? (ex: SSD, large amount of storage or a RAID setup, CUDA or OpenCL support, etc)
A couple things... - I've read that Intel chips are the highest quality out there. An Intel i7 seems to be a worthy investment according to my research... I wouldn't mind having one, unless someone can talk me out of it. - I'd like to duel boot a unix machine. Years of programming on my mac have left me dependent on a unix-type environment. I may try and install MacOS Mojave at some point, but that is more of a pipe dream.
Do you have any specific case preferences (Size like ITX/microATX/mid-towefull-tower, styles, colors, window or not, LED lighting, etc), or a particular color theme preference for the components?
Don't know a damn thing about cases. Don't care for aesthetic. Function over form.
Do you need a copy of Windows included in the budget? If you do need one included, do you have a preference?
Yes, whatever is standard, which I guess is 64-bit 10 Home.
Extra info or particulars:
I've heard that 144Hz monitors are a must-have for anyone looking for a serious display. Is this true? Also, are there significant differences between average and high-end keyboards and mice? I don't need something to compete with streamers, I've just got to get to that next settlement Preston Garvey sends me to. Also, Amazon is my preferred vendor, as I've got a bunch of credit on there I can put towards this.
submitted by StewMcgoo to buildapcforme [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by ClareKuang to Crypto_General [link] [comments]

(Updated) [Staking] Reddcoin Core client GUI wallet on a Raspberry Pi Model 3B

Intro

This thread is an update to my first Reddcoin staking tutorial that was written 7 months ago.
 
The reason for the update
My Reddcoin Core software crashed and became unusable. My Raspberry Pi 3B would lag and freeze, I couldn't stake anymore.
 
Instead of just redoing everything the same way, I wanted to see if I could improve on 3 points:
 
The updates
 
If you would like to tip me
Writing a tutorial like this takes time and effort; tips are appreciated. My Reddcoin address: RqvdnNX5MTam855Y2Vudv7yVgtXdcYaQAW.
     

Overview

 

Steps

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     

Video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Snr5e8bzftI
This video shows how long it takes to start Reddcoin Core.   TL;DR:
     

Extra

Backup
Backup your wallet to prevent losing the RDDs in your wallet! There are two methods to backup, do both. Make new backups if you create a new receiving address!
 
 
   
Boot with only 1 USB drive plugged in:
Make sure only the USB drive (with the swap partition and data partition) is plugged in when you boot up your Raspberry Pi. This to make sure the swap partition (/dev/sda1) is recognized correctly.   If you boot up with multiple USB drives, Lubuntu might see the USB drive with the swap partition as the second drive (instead of the first drive), and ignore the 2 GB swap partition. If this happens, starting Reddcoin can render the Raspberry Pi unresponsive.
   
Connection issues If you have issues syncing the blockchain because you have 0 network connections, please follow the instructions in this thread.
   
Start Reddcoin Core easier
Run a shell script (.sh file), so you can start Reddcoin just by double clicking on an icon on your Desktop.
   
Minimization options
Adjust minimization options, so you can safely press on the X button (the close/exit button on the upper right corner).
   
RealVNC VNC Viewer (client) and VNC Connect (server): To remote connect to the Raspberry Pi, I use VNC Viewer ad VNC Connect from RealVNC.
 
   
Chromium as browser: The updates break Firefox, the browser crashes when you try to run it. Install another browser, Chromium, to solve this issue.
   
Updates / Upgrades
If Software Updater shows up and tells you that there is updated software available, do not install the updates using Software Updater. Use LXTerminal to update Lubuntu.  
     

Credits:

   
Credits in previous tutorial:
submitted by Yavuz_Selim to reddCoin [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by Lilianli87 to MiningRig [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by Lilianli87 to Crypto_General [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by ClareKuang to CryptoCurrencyTrading [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by Lilianli87 to bitcoinxt [link] [comments]

Soft-forking the block time to 2 min: my primarily silly and academic (but seemingly effective) entry to the "increase the blockchain's capacity in an arbitrarily roundabout way as long as it's a softfork" competition

So given that large portions of the bitcoin community seem to be strongly attached to this notion that hard forks are an unforgivable evil, to the point that schemes containing hundreds of lines of code are deemed to be a preferred alternative, I thought that I'd offer an alternative strategy to increasing the bitcoin blockchain's throughput with nothing more than a soft fork - one which is somewhat involved and counterintuitive, but for which the code changes are actually quite a bit smaller than some of the alternatives; particularly, "upper layers" of the protocol stack should need no changes at all.
Notes:
The attack vector is as follows. Instead of trying to increase the size of an individual block directly, we will create a softfork where under the softfork rules, miners are compelled to insert incorrect timestamps, so as to trick the bitcoin blockchain into retargeting difficulty in such a way that on average, a block comes every two minutes instead of once every ten minutes, thereby increasing throughput to be equivalent to a 5 MB block size.
First, let us go over the bitcoin block timestamp and difficulty retargeting rules:
The last rule ensures that difficulty adjustments are "clamped" between a 4x increase and a 4x decrease no matter what.
So, how to we do this? Let's suppose for the sake of simplicity that in all examples the soft fork starts at unix time 1500000000. We could say that instead of putting the real time into blocks, miners should put 1500000000 + (t - 1500000000) * 5; this would make the blockchain think that blocks are coming 5x as rarely, and so it would decrease difficulty by a factor of 5, so that from the point of view of actual time blocks will start coming in every two minutes instead of ten. However, this approach has one problem: it is not a soft fork. Users running the original bitcoin client will very quickly start rejecting the new blocks because the timestamps are too far into the future.
Can we get around this problem? You could use 1500000000 + (t - 1500000000) * 0.2 as the formula instead, and that would be a soft fork, but that would be counterproductive: if you do that, you would instead reduce the real-world block throughput by 5x. You could try to look at schemes where you pretend that blocks come quickly sometimes and slowly at other times and "zigzag" your way to a lower net equilibrium difficulty, but that doesn't work: for mathematical reasons that have to do with the fact that 1/x always has a positive second derivative, any such strategy would inevitably gain more difficulty going up than it would lose coming down (at least as long as it stays within the constraint that "fake time" must always be less than or equal to "real time").
However, there is one clever way around this. We start off by running a soft fork that sets fake_time = 1500000000 + (real_time - 1500000000) * 0.01 for as long as is needed to get fake time 12 weeks behind real time. However, we add an additional rule: every 2016th block, we set the block timestamp equal to real time (this rule is enforced by soft-fork: if you as a miner don't do this, other miners don't build on top of your block). This way, the difficulty retargeting algorithm has no idea that anything is out of the ordinary, and so difficulty just keeps adjusting as normal. Note that because the timestamp of each block need only be higher than the median of the timestamps of the previous 11 blocks, and not necessarily higher than that of the immediately previous block, it's perfectly fine to hop right back to fake time after those single blocks at real time. During those 12 weeks, we also add a soft-forking change which invalidates a random 20% of blocks in the first two weeks, a random 36% of blocks in the second two weeks, 50% in the third two weeks, etc; this creates a gap between in-protocol difficulty and de-facto difficulty that will hit 4x by the time we start the next step (we need this to avoid having an 8-week period where block throughput is at 250 kb per 10 minutes).
Then, once we have 12 weeks of "leeway", we perform the following maneuver. We do the first retarget with the timestamp equal to fake time; this increases difficulty by 4x (as the timestamp difference is -12 weeks, which gets clamped to the minimum of 302400 seconds = 0.5 weeks). The retarget after that, we set the timestamp 8 weeks ahead of fake time, so as to get the difficulty down 4x. The retargeting round after that, we determine the actual retargeting coefficient c that we want to have, and clamp it so that 0.5 <= c < 2. We set the block timestamp c * 2 weeks ahead of the timestamp of the previous retargeting block. Then, in the retargeting round after that, we set the block timestamp back at fake time, and start the cycle again. Rinse and repeat forever.
Diagram here: http://i.imgur.com/sqKa00e.png
Hence, in general we spend 2/3 of our retargeting periods in lower-difficulty mode, and 1/3 in higher-difficulty. We choose c to target the block time in lower-difficulty mode to 30 seconds, so that in higher-difficulty mode it will be two minutes. In lower-difficulty mode, we add another softfork change in order to make a random 75% of blocks that get produced invalid (eg. one simple way to do this is to just pretend that the difficulty during these periods is 4x higher), so the actual block time duing all periods will converge toward two minutes - equivalent to a throughput of 5 MB every ten minutes.
Note that a corollary of this is that it is possible for a majority of miners to collude using the technique above to make the block rewards come out 5x faster (or even more) than they are supposed to, thereby greatly enriching themselves at the expense of future network security. This is a slight argument in favor of bitcoin's finite supply over infinite supply models (eg. dogecoin), because in an infinite supply model this means that you can actually permanently expand issuance via a soft fork rather than just making the existing limited issuance come out faster. This is a quirk of bitcoin's difficulty adjustment algorithm specifically; other algorithms are immune to this specific trick though they may be vulnerable to tricks of their own.
Homework:
EDIT:
I looked at the code again and it seems like the difficulty retargeting algorithm might actually only look 2015 blocks back every 2016 blocks rather than every 2016 blocks (ie. it checks the timestamp difference between block 2016*k+2015 and 2016*k, not 2016*k+2016 and 2016*k as I had assumed). In that case, the timestamp dance and the initial capacity adjustment process might actually be substantially simpler than I thought: it would simply be a one-step procedure of always setting the timestamp at 2016*k to equal real time and then setting the timestamp of 2016*k+2015 to whatever is convenient for achieving the desired difficulty adjustment.
EDIT 2:
I think I may have been wrong about the effectiveness of this strategy being limited by the minimum safe block time. Specifically, note that you can construct a soft fork where the in-protocol difficulty drops to the point where it's negligible, and say that all blocks where block.number % N != 0 have negligible difficulty but blocks where block.number % N = 0 are soft-forked to have higher de-facto difficulty; in this case, a miner's optimal strategy will be to simultaneously generate N-1 easy blocks and a hard block and if successful publish them as a package, creating a "de-facto block" of theoretically unlimited size.
submitted by vbuterin to btc [link] [comments]

The Nexus FAQ - part 1

Full formatted version: https://docs.google.com/document/d/16KKjVjQH0ypLe00aoTJ_hZyce7RAtjC5XHom104yn6M/
 

Nexus 101:

  1. What is Nexus?
  2. What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space?
  3. How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus?
  4. What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement this?
  5. What is Nexus’ Unified Time protocol?
  6. Why does Nexus need its own satellite network?
 

The Nexus Currency:

  1. How can I get Nexus?
  2. How much does a transaction cost?
  3. How fast does Nexus transfer?
  4. Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded?
  5. Is there a cap on the number of Nexus in existence?
  6. What is the difference between the Oracle wallet and the LLD wallet?
  7. How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet?
  8. How do I install the Nexus Wallet?
 

Types of Mining or Minting:

  1. Can I mine Nexus?
  2. How do I mine Nexus?
  3. How do I stake Nexus?
  4. I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are trust weight, block weight and stake weight?
 

Nexus 101:

1. What is Nexus (NXS)?
Nexus is a digital currency, distributed framework, and peer-to-peer network. Nexus further improves upon the blockchain protocol by focusing on the following core technological principles:
Nexus will combine our in-development quantum-resistant 3D blockchain software with cutting edge communication satellites to deliver a free, distributed, financial and data solution. Through our planned satellite and ground-based mesh networks, Nexus will provide uncensored internet access whilst bringing the benefits of distributed database systems to the world.
For a short video introduction to Nexus Earth, please visit this link
 
2. What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space?
As Nexus has been developed, an incredible amount of time has been put into identifying and solving several key limitations:
Nexus is also developing a framework called the Lower Level Library. This LLL will incorporate the following improvements:
For information about more additions to the Lower Level Library, please visit here
 
3. How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus?
Nexus is unique amongst blockchain technology in that Nexus uses 3 channels to secure the network against attack. Whereas Bitcoin uses only Proof-of-Work to secure the network, Nexus combines a prime number channel, a hashing channel and a Proof-of-Stake channel. Where Bitcoin has a difficulty adjustment interval measured in weeks, Nexus can respond to increased hashrate in the space of 1 block and each channel scales independently of the other two channels. This stabilizes the block times at ~50 seconds and ensures no single channel can monopolize block production. This means that a 51% attack is much more difficult to launch because an attacker would need to control all 3 channels.
Every 60 minutes, the Nexus protocol automatically creates a checkpoint. This prevents blocks from being created or modified dated prior to this checkpoint, thus protecting the chain from malicious attempts to introduce an alternate blockchain.
 
4. What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement it?
To understand what quantum resistance is and why it is important, you need to understand how quantum computing works and why it’s a threat to blockchain technology. Classical computing uses an array of transistors. These transistors form the heart of your computer (the CPU). Each transistor is capable of being either on or off, and these states are used to represent the numerical values 1 and 0.
Binary digits’ (bits) number of states depends on the number of transistors available, according to the formula 2n, where n is the number of transistors. Classical computers can only be in one of these states at any one time, so the speed of your computer is limited to how fast it can change states.
Quantum computers utilize quantum bits, “qubits,” which are represented by the quantum state of electrons or photons. These particles are placed into a state called superposition, which allows the qubit to assume a value of 1 or 0 simultaneously.
Superposition permits a quantum computer to process a higher number of data possibilities than a classical computer. Qubits can also become entangled. Entanglement makes a qubit dependant on the state of another, enabling quantum computing to calculate complex problems, extremely quickly.
One such problem is the Discrete Logarithm Problem which elliptic curve cryptography relies on for security. Quantum computers can use Shor’s algorithm to reverse a key in polynomial time (which is really really really fast). This means that public keys become vulnerable to quantum attack, since quantum computers are capable of being billions of times faster at certain calculations. One way to increase quantum resistance is to require more qubits (and more time) by using larger private keys:
Bitcoin Private Key (256 bit) 5Kb8kLf9zgWQnogidDA76MzPL6TsZZY36hWXMssSzNydYXYB9KF
Nexus Private Key (571 bit) 6Wuiv513R18o5cRpwNSCfT7xs9tniHHN5Lb3AMs58vkVxsQdL4atHTF Vt5TNT9himnCMmnbjbCPxgxhSTDE5iAzCZ3LhJFm7L9rCFroYoqz
Bitcoin addresses are created by hashing the public key, so it is not possible to decrypt the public key from the address; however, once you send funds from that address, the public key is published on the blockchain rendering that address vulnerable to attack. This means that your money has higher chances of being stolen.
Nexus eliminates these vulnerabilities through an innovation called signature chains. Signature chains will enable access to an account using a username, password and PIN. When you create a transaction on the network, you claim ownership of your signature chain by revealing the public key of the NextHash (the hash of your public key) and producing a signature from the one time use private key. Your wallet then creates a new private/public keypair, generates a new NextHash, including the corresponding contract. This contract can be a receive address, a debit, a vote, or any other type of rule that is written in the contract code.
This keeps the public key obscured until the next transaction, and by divorcing the address from the public key, it is unnecessary to change addresses in order to change public keys. Changing your password or PIN code becomes a case of proving ownership of your signature chain and broadcasting a new transaction with a new NextHash for your new password and/or PIN. This provides the ability to login to your account via the signature chain, which becomes your personal chain within the 3D chain, enabling the network to prove and disprove trust, and improving ease of use without sacrificing security.
The next challenge with quantum computers is that Grover’s algorithm reduces the security of one-way hash function by a factor of two. Because of this, Nexus incorporates two new hash functions, Skein and Keccak, which were designed in 2008 as part of a contest to create a new SHA3 standard. Keccak narrowly defeated Skein to win the contest, so to maximize their potential Nexus combines these algorithms. Skein and Keccak utilize permutation to rotate and mix the information in the hash.
To maintain a respective 256/512 bit quantum resistance, Nexus uses up to 1024 bits in its proof-of-work, and 512 bits for transactions.
 
5. What is the Unified Time protocol?
All blockchains use time-stamping mechanisms, so it is important that all nodes operate using the same clock. Bitcoin allows for up to 2 hours’ discrepancy between nodes, which provides a window of opportunity for the blockchain to be manipulated by time-related attack vectors. Nexus eliminates this vulnerability by implementing a time synchronization protocol termed Unified Time. Unified Time also enhances transaction processing and will form an integral part of the 3D chain scaling solution.
The Unified Time protocol facilitates a peer-to-peer timing system that keeps all clocks on the network synchronized to within a second. This is seeded by selected nodes with timestamps derived from the UNIX standard; that is, the number of seconds since January 1st, 1970 00:00 UTC. Every minute, the seed nodes report their current time, and a moving average is used to calculate the base time. Any node which sends back a timestamp outside a given tolerance is rejected.
It is important to note that the Nexus network is fully synchronized even if an individual wallet displays something different from the local time.
 
6. Why does Nexus need its own satellite network?
One of the key limitations of a purely electronic monetary system is that it requires a connection to the rest of the network to verify transactions. Existing network infrastructure only services a fraction of the world’s population.
Nexus, in conjunction with Vector Space Systems, is designing communication satellites, or cubesats, to be launched into Low Earth Orbit in 2019. Primarily, the cubesat mesh network will exist to give Nexus worldwide coverage, but Nexus will also utilize its orbital and ground mesh networks to provide free and uncensored internet access to the world.
 

The Nexus Currency (NXS):

1. How can I get Nexus?
There are two ways you can obtain Nexus. You can either buy Nexus from an exchange, or you can run a miner and be rewarded for finding a block. If you wish to mine Nexus, please follow our guide found below.
Currently, Nexus is available on the following exchanges:
Nexus is actively reaching out to other exchanges to continue to be listed on cutting edge new financial technologies..
 
2. How much does a transaction cost?
Under Nexus, the fee structure for making a transaction depends on the size of your transaction. A default fee of 0.01 NXS will cover most transactions, and users have the option to pay higher fees to ensure their transactions are processed quickly.
When the 3D chain is complete and the initial 10-year distribution period finishes, Nexus will absorb these fees through inflation, enabling free transactions.
 
3. How fast does Nexus transfer?
Nexus reaches consensus approximately every ~ 50 seconds. This is an average time, and will in some circumstances be faster or slower. NXS currency which you receive is available for use after just 6 confirmations. A confirmation is proof from a node that the transaction has been included in a block. The number of confirmations in this transaction is the number that states how many blocks it has been since the transaction is included. The more confirmations a transaction has, the more secure its placement in the blockchain is.
 
4. Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded?
The Nexus Embassy, a 501(C)(3) not-for-profit corporation, develops and maintains the Nexus blockchain software. When Nexus began under the name Coinshield, the early blocks were mined using the Developer and Exchange (Ambassador) addresses, which provides funding for the Nexus Embassy.
The Developer Fund fuels ongoing development and is sourced by a 1.5% commission per block mined, which will slowly increase to 2.5% after 10 years. This brings all the benefits of development funding without the associated risks.
The Ambassador (renamed from Exchange) keys are funded by a 20% commission per block reward. These keys are mainly used to pay for marketing, and producing and launching the Nexus satellites.
When Nexus introduces developer and ambassador contracts, they will be approved, denied, or removed by six voting groups namely: currency, developer, ambassador, prime, hash, and trust.
Please Note: The Nexus Embassy reserves the sole right to trade, sell and or use these funds as required; however, Nexus will endeavor to minimize the impact that the use of these funds has upon the NXS market value.
 
5. Is there a cap on the number of NXS in existence?
After an initial 10-year distribution period ending on September 23rd, 2024, there will be a total of 78 million NXS. Over this period, the reward gradient for mining Nexus follows a decaying logarithmic curve instead of the reward halving inherent in Bitcoin. This avoids creating a situation where older mining equipment is suddenly unprofitable, encouraging miners to continue upgrading their equipment over time and at the same time reducing major market shocks on block halving events.
When the distribution period ends, the currency supply will inflate annually by a maximum of 3% via staking and by 1% via the prime and hashing channels. This inflation is completely unlike traditional inflation, which degrades the value of existing coins. Instead, the cost of providing security to the blockchain is paid by inflation, eliminating transaction fees.
Colin Cantrell - Nexus Inflation Explained
 
6. What is the difference between the LLD wallet and the Oracle wallet?
Due to the scales of efficiency needed by blockchain, Nexus has developed a custom-built database called the Lower Level Database. Since the development of the LLD wallet 0.2.3.1, which is a precursor to the Tritium updates, you should begin using the LLD wallet to take advantage of the faster load times and improved efficiency.
The Oracle wallet is a legacy wallet which is no longer maintained or updated. It utilized the Berkeley DB, which is not designed to meet the needs of a blockchain. Eventually, users will need to migrate to the LLD wallet. Fortunately, the wallet.dat is interchangeable between wallets, so there is no risk of losing access to your NXS.
 
7. How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet?
Step 1 - Backup your wallet.dat file. You can do this from within the Oracle wallet Menu, Backup Wallet.
Step 2 - Uninstall the Oracle wallet. Close the wallet and navigate to the wallet data directory. On Windows, this is the Nexus folder located at %APPDATA%\Nexus. On macOS, this is the Nexus folder located at ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus. Move all of the contents to a temporary folder as a backup.
Step 3 - Copy your backup of wallet.dat into the Nexus folder located as per Step 2.
Step 4 - Install the Nexus LLD wallet. Please follow the steps as outlined in the next section. Once your wallet is fully synced, your new wallet will have access to all your addresses.
 
8. How do I install the Nexus Wallet?
You can install your Nexus wallet by following these steps:
Step 1 - Download your wallet from www.nexusearth.com. Click the Downloads menu at the top and select the appropriate wallet for your operating system.
Step 2 - Unzip the wallet program to a folder. Before running the wallet program, please consider space limitations and load times. On the Windows OS, the wallet saves all data to the %APPDATA%\Nexus folder, including the blockchain, which is currently ~3GB.
On macOS, data is saved to the ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus folder. You can create a symbolic link, which will allow you to install this information in another location.
Using Windows, follow these steps:
On macOS, follow these steps:
Step 3 (optional) - Before running the wallet, we recommend downloading the blockchain database manually. Nexus Earth maintains a copy of the blockchain data which can save hours from the wallet synchronization process. Please go to www.nexusearth.com and click the Downloads menu.
Step 4 (optional) - Extract the database file. This is commonly found in the .zip or .rar format, so you may need a program like 7zip to extract the contents. Please extract it to the relevant directory, as outlined in step 2.
Step 5 - You can now start your wallet. After it loads, it should be able to complete synchronization in a short time. This may still take a couple of hours. Once it has completed synchronizing, a green check mark icon will appear in the lower right corner of the wallet.
Step 6 - Encrypt your wallet. This can be done within the wallet, under the Settings menu. Encrypting your wallet will lock it, requiring a password in order to send transactions.
Step 7 - Backup your wallet.dat file. This can be done from the File menu inside the wallet. This file contains the keys to the addresses in your wallet. You may wish to keep a secure copy of your password somewhere, too, in case you forget it or someone else (your spouse, for example) ever needs it.
You should back up your wallet.dat file again any time you create – or a Genesis transaction creates (see “staking” below) – a new address.
 

Types of Mining or Minting:

1.Can I mine Nexus?
Yes, there are 2 channels that you can use to mine Nexus, and 1 channel of minting:
Prime Mining Channel
This mining channel looks for a special prime cluster of a set length. This type of calculation is resistant to ASIC mining, allowing for greater decentralization. This is most often performed using the CPU.
Hashing Channel
This channel utilizes the more traditional method of hashing. This process adds a random nonce, hashes the data, and compares the resultant hash against a predetermined format set by the difficulty. This is most often performed using a GPU.
Proof of Stake (nPoS)
Staking is a form of mining NXS. With this process, you can receive NXS rewards from the network for continuously operating your node (wallet). It is recommended that you only stake with a minimum balance of 1000 NXS. It’s not impossible to stake with less, but it becomes harder to maintain trust. Losing trust resets the interest rate back to 0.5% per annum.
 
2. How do I mine Nexus?
As outlined above, there are two types of mining and 1 proof of stake. Each type of mining uses a different component of your computer to find blocks, the CPU or the GPU. Nexus supports CPU and GPU mining on Windows only. There are also third-party macOS builds available.
Please follow the instructions below for the relevant type of miner.
 
Prime Mining:
Almost every CPU is capable of mining blocks on this channel. The most effective method of mining is to join a mining pool and receive a share of the rewards based on the contribution you make. To create your own mining facility, you need the CPU mining software, and a NXS address. This address cannot be on an exchange. You create an address when you install your Nexus wallet. You can find the related steps under How Do I Install the Nexus Wallet?
Please download the relevant miner from http://nexusearth.com/mining.html. Please note that there are two different miner builds available: the prime solo miner and the prime pool miner. This guide will walk you through installing the pool miner only.
Step 1 - Extract the archive file to a folder.
Step 2 - Open the miner.conf file. You can use the default host and port, but these may be changed to a pool of your choice. You will need to change the value of nxs_address to the address found in your wallet. Sieve_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to use to find primes. Ptest_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to test the primes found by the sieve. As a general rule, the number of threads used for the sieve should be 75% of the threads used for testing.
It is also recommended to add the following line to the options found in the .conf file:
"experimental" : "true"
This option enables the miner to use an improved sieve algorithm which will enable your miner to find primes at a faster rate.
Step 3 - Run the nexus_cpuminer.exe file. For a description of the information shown in this application, please read this guide.
 
Hashing:
The GPU is a dedicated processing unit housed on-board your graphics card. The GPU is able to perform certain tasks extremely well, unlike your CPU, which is designed for parallel processing. Nexus supports both AMD and Nvidia GPU mining, and works best on the newer models. Officially, Nexus does not support GPU pool mining, but there are 3rd party miners with this capability.
The latest software for the Nvidia miner can be found here. The latest software for the AMD miner can be found here. The AMD miner is a third party miner. Information and advice about using the AMD miner can be found on our Slack channel. This guide will walk you through the Nvidia miner.
Step 1 - Close your wallet. Navigate to %appdata%\Nexus (~/Library/Application Support/Nexus on macOS) and open the nexus.conf file. Depending on your wallet, you may or may not have this file. If not, please create a new txt file and save it as nexus.conf
You will need to add the following lines before restarting your wallet:
Step 2 - Extract the files into a new folder.
Step 3 - Run the nexus.bat file. This will run the miner and deposit any rewards for mining a block into the account on your wallet.
For more information on either Prime Mining or Hashing, please join our Slack and visit the #mining channel. Additional information can be found here.
 
3. How do I stake Nexus?
Once you have your wallet installed, fully synchronized and encrypted, you can begin staking by:
After you begin staking, you will receive a Genesis transaction as your first staking reward. This establishes a Trust key in your wallet and stakes your wallet balance on that key. From that point, you will periodically receive additional Trust transactions as further staking rewards for as long as your Trust key remains active.
IMPORTANT - After you receive a Genesis transaction, backup your wallet.dat file immediately. You can select the Backup Wallet option from the File menu, or manually copy the file directly. If you do not do this, then your Nexus balance will be staked on the Trust key that you do not have backed up, and you risk loss if you were to suffer a hard drive failure or other similar problem. In the future, signature chains will make this precaution unnecessary.
 
4. I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are interest rate, trust weight, block weight, and stake weight?
These items affect the size and frequency of staking rewards after you receive your initial Genesis transaction. When staking is active, the wallet displays a clock icon in the bottom right corner. If you hover your mouse pointer over the icon, a tooltip-style display will open up, showing their current values.
Please remember to backup your wallet.dat file (see question 3 above) after you receive a Genesis transaction.
Interest Rate - The minting rate at which you will receive staking rewards, displayed as an annual percentage of your NXS balance. It starts at 0.5%, increasing to 3% after 12 months. The rate increase is not linear but slows over time. It takes several weeks to reach 1% and around 3 months to reach 2%.
With this rate, you can calculate the average amount of NXS you can expect to receive each day for staking.
Trust Weight - An indication of how much the network trusts your node. It starts at 5% and increases much more quickly than the minting (interest) rate, reaching 100% after one month. Your level of trust increases your stake weight (below), thus increasing your chances of receiving staking transactions. It becomes easier to maintain trust as this value increases.
Block Weight - Upon receipt of a Genesis transaction, this value will begin increasing slowly, reaching 100% after 24 hours. Every time you receive a staking transaction, the block weight resets. If your block weight reaches 100%, then your Trust key expires and everything resets (0.5% interest rate, 5% trust weight, waiting for a new Genesis transaction).
This 24-hour requirement will be replaced by a gradual decay in the Tritium release. As long as you receive a transaction before it decays completely, you will hold onto your key. This change addresses the potential of losing your trust key after months of staking simply because of one unlucky day receiving trust transactions.
Stake Weight - The higher your stake weight, the greater your chance of receiving a transaction. The exact value is a derived by a formula using your trust weight and block weight, which roughly equals the average of the two. Thus, each time you receive a transaction, your stake weight will reset to approximately half of your current level of trust.
submitted by scottsimon36 to nexusearth [link] [comments]

Historical Analogy between Brexit & the DAO and Public Blockchain on Consensus, Fork, Decentralization and Security

Brexit and the DAO Hack
What is ‘Brexit’? The term is short for “British exit” — shorthand for the UK’s exit from the EU following the referendum result on June 23 2016, this unanimous referendum contributed a profound impact on the political and economic landscape worldwide. Obviously, the referendum is a way of reaching a consensus. Six hours right after the release of Brexit, “What is the EU?” came to the top search on Google. It indicates that the unanimous referendum has done under the situation that even many people did not know what the EU was. The next day, more than one million Britons will jointly hope for a second referendum.
Code was supposed to eliminate the need to trust humans. But humans, it turns out, are tough to take out of the equation
The DAO launched on 30th April, 2016, for whatever reason, the DAO was popular, raising over $100m by 15th May, with a 28-day. By the end of the funding period, The DAO was the largest crowdfunding in history, having risen over $150m from more than 11,000 enthusiastic members. Unfortunately, by Saturday, 18th June, the attacker managed to drain more than 3.6m ether into a “child DAO” that has the same structure as The DAO. The price of ether dropped from over $20 to under $13.
Meanwhile, Vitalik Buterin of the Ethereum Foundation issued a critical update, saying that the DAO was under attack and that he had worked out a solution. in order to save The Dao investors’ losses, the final decision was make to the hard fork.
In fact, prophase middle and late stage during the crowdfunding of The DAO project, many people indicated their design flaws and called for a temporary suspension of project crowdfunding. However, due to various reasons, those warnings did not cause enough attention to The DAO project team, which triggered DAO hack. Furthermore, this is an avoidable attact, but also reflects the greed of human nature.
The Brexit in which human society has reached consensus and the DAO hack in the blockchain seem to be unrelated incidents. But it is the most intense discussion of “consensus and fork, centering and decentralization” in the blockchain field. Hopefule, this article indicates the analogy between the Brexit & the DAO and the public blockchain.
The value of consensus
The consensus makes human beings valuable, since people do not live isolated. Furthermore, strong social attributes and networking which requires exchange and communication among people on the purpose of reaching consensus. How could we reach consensus? The first level is the linguistic consensus. The second level is semantic consensus. The third level is the implementation of consensus. In a consistent language environment, common understanding, people really implement the expected conclusions could be reached. However, in practice, deviations often occur in the implementation process.
The consensus is costly, take Brexit as an example again; the referendum off the European Union is time-consuming and laborious. First of all, we must mobilize all people have a reasonable understanding; Secondly, organize people to vote; thirdly, we have collect, sort, classify, and calculate the voting information; and finally, generate the result. The seemingly simple referendum, or the process of obtaining consensus, maybe it cost more than what we think.
Blockchain consensus VS human being consensus
The blockchain is established under consensus, a solid and unchangeable true record of consensus formation is formed. Here the longest chain represents the truth, and all people will accept it. And other branches are forked. There will be many new forks in the blockchain with the chain formation process. Fork is competitive with each other contribute that only the longest one can preserve and be recognized by all. This is the common rule of blockchain consensus.
On the other hand, the opposite of consensus is “differentiation.” But what causes the differences? First of all, in the process of reaching a consensus, there is no real consensus on connotation and extension. Secondly, even after a consensus is formed, people do not actually implement the conclusions based on the consensus mechanism. These disagreements could not generate the consensus. Once a new block is generated, it is synchronized to all or most of the nodes in real time. That is, once a consensus has been formed, it needs to be ensured that it is actually implemented. Only in this way can we ensure that all blockchain networks will always have a consensus.
With time being, the DAO hack attracts more people’s attention increasingly, especially in the term of soft forking and hard fork. “Hard fork” means that all transactions will be tracked back to a point in time before they are stolen. And “soft fork” is equivalent to closing all transactions from the attacker’s address.In simple terms, through active fork techniques, good people and attackers disagree, and the attacker’s malicious transaction is not recognized by most (good) people.
Byzantine General: Centered and Decentralized
From a comprehensive and objective expect the Dao hack, The Dao is the most important experiment of Bitcoin. In a world where everyone is accustomed to centralized management, and how to achieve a decentralized management organization? This problem could not get through is the issue of “General Byzantine”, which is a classic problem that assumes that good people in Byzantine are in the majority. The generals of the Byzantine Empire’s army must all unanimously decide whether to attack a particular enemy. The problem is that these generals are geographically separated and there are traitors in the generals. Traitors can act arbitrarily to achieve the following goals:
(1) Defrauding certain generals to take offensive actions;
(2) To facilitate a decision that not all generals agree on, such as when the generals do not want to attack to facilitate offensive actions;
(3) Enchant some generals to make it impossible to make a decision. If the traitor achieves any of these goals, the result of the attack is doomed to failure, and only a fully-consensual consensus can win.
The “Byzantine General” issue is a good example based on the settlement of consensus mechanisms, involving centralization and decentralization. If it is a centralized solution, it is none other than people who collectively elect some people as the general, and then the generals come to discuss and vote until the supreme commander makes a final decision on all factors. The decentralized solution is regarding all people are generals, and everyone is directly involved in the final decision.
Furthermore, distributed system and decentralization are often confusing, and even one-sided people think that distributed is equivalent to decentralization. In fact, distribution could be centralized, and centralized may also be decentralized. For example, all voters are required to go to the same place for the referendum. It is interesting that to select representatives to make decisions or all personnel to make decisions directly. Guess please, among those two methods which one ultimately leads to better decisions? In different perspectives, the answer is also questionable.
Centralized and Decentralized result of Brexit Results
If the above problem is mapped to the field of data mining and machine learning. “All staff” corresponds to “full sample data.” The “representative” corresponds to the filtered “sample data.” The “decision made” corresponds to the “generated model.” Unexpectedly, we will find that the data model generated based on full sample data may not be of the highest quality. Instead, those models are based on screening samples are more effective. The reason is very simple that when we are using full samples, we can’t avoid introducing additional noise. Accurately speaking, the full sample is sometimes not conducive to algorithms that generate models that match the distribution of real data. When noise is removed, the new model is more accurate. This is the statistical principle why people often need to do data cleaning operations before data modeling.
This difference is particularly evident in the Brexit. We can figure out that the big differences between the northern and southern parts of the UK. Northern Scotland and much of Ireland people strongly support the retention of Europe (yellow part in the picture), while most people in the southern region opt for Brexit (blue part in the picture). From all the British (full sample), the majority of people who chose to leave the European Union occupied the majority. In this process, it is obvious that the huge contradiction between local features and global statistics. If taking a centralized or decentralized approach, the conclusion may be completely different.
https://preview.redd.it/vs339s5f5dz01.png?width=459&format=png&auto=webp&s=44fa9302be93b54ae2d8267b10c1845191dd1fef
In the blockchain domain, the main advantages of decentralization are reflected in the support of “point-to-point” direct transactions and the establishment of strong trust relationships with many weak trust nodes. In the centralized solution, the center often becomes the “bottleneck” of the entire system, and becomes the weakest link in which the system is most vulnerable to be attacked. In order for the center to have sufficient processing power, throughput, security and reliability, it si often required to purchase the very expensive equipments.
Soft fork and hard fork is not inconsistent with decentralization
What is the correlation between disagreement or fork and decentralization? There is no necessary connection between those two indeed. From the DAO hack incident point of view, due to the fork proposal was Vitalik represented by the Ethereum Foundation appealed. Therefore, people might regard that “Is this not a new center?” Furthermore, there is a fundamental difference between such appeals and advocacy and true centralization. Whether people really make soft fork or hard fork depends on single people who are involved in building and operating the Ethereum network. As Vitalik stated in one of his public response that I will not stop or oppose the other’s their views or opinions in public or even lobby the miners to resist this soft fork.
Meanwhile, in the course of The DAO hack, there are a lot of rumors about whether “Ethernet blockchain is a decentralized network as it advertises” and “Ethereum blockchain will be stopped”. Because of the emergence of bitcoin mining machines and mining pools, there was a center for the calculation of bitcoin designs that were originally decentralized. These computing centers have a great impact on the Bitcoin network. Therefore, Ethereum could be carried out a new design, considering more decentralized approach, and reduce the possibility of specializing in the design and manufacture of the Ethereum mining machine in the future. The principle it adopts is very simple, which is, block calculation based on Ethereum blockchain must be based on relatively large memory. Existing miners that can perform Hash calculation directly on the bitcoin system. As a result, the cost of manufacturing Ethereum mining machines has become very expensive and centralised mining methods have been avoided as much as possible.
Of course, we must objectively treat the contrast between Bitcoin and Ethereum’s ecosystem, and Bitcoin still Take the absolute advantage. From the perspective of hash computing power, the average computational power of Bitcoin’s current network is about 1,500,000 TH/S, and Ethereum’s computational power is 4 TH/S, a 4 million-fold difference. There is also a problem of over-concentration of mining pools. Some domestic experts are optimistic about this matter. Another fact is that the vast majority of bitcoin mining pools are built in China. This is helpful for China to increase its influence in Bitcoin’s virtual world. From the point of my view, absolute centralization and absolute decentralization are undesirable; in particular, the fiery blockchain is now more based on Bitcoin’s existing blockchain design. The price increasing of Bitcoin’s is in kind of indicator that people are optimizing on blockchain technology in the future.
The DAO’s Security Alerts in the Middle and Application Layers
The most critical question that people are concerned from the DAO hack is the security issue. All security is needed to be hierarchical. As figure below indicated, in the Ethereum eco-system, the bottom level is the Taifang virtual machine — — EVM. The middle tier is a programming language or script needed to support application programming, such as Solidity, Python, Go, etc. The top level is various applications written in languages ​​such as Solidity. For example, the DAO is one of an Ethereum application. This architecture is analogous to the IT ecosystem that we are now familiar with. At the bottom level is the various operating systems people are familiar with, such as Windows, Linux, UNIX, For example, if it is a mobile ecosystem, it corresponds to Apple’s iOS and Android’s Android system. The middle tier is a variety of programming languages ​​such as Java, C++, Python, etc. The top level is a variety of applications, such as Taobao, WeChat etc.
After the hierarchy is divided, it is easy to trace back the problem. There is no necessary connection between The DAO Hack and Ethereum EVM. Just as there was a security issue when using Taobao or WeChat, and it’s crashed suddenly which could not due to the problem of Windows or IOS. However, the loopholes in the underlying system might contribute security problems in the upper application. Fortunately, in the DAO hack, security vulnerabilities did not appear in the underlying EVM, but it were origin form on recursive call vulnerability in the solidity programming. Just like there was a bug in the Java language, which led to the crash of Taobao or WeChat, this security issue is irrelevant to Windows or IOS.
In conclusion, one of the biggest problems of the public block chain is the contradiction between security and efficiency, that is to say that how to figure out the optimum balance between decentralization and efficiency? From the perspective of the public blockchain, it avoids the limitations of the intermediary institutions and establishes a peer-to-peer trust paradigm. As well as from the perspective of the alliance blockchain, its consensus approach is more based on the Byzantine fault-tolerance mechanism. Since it is multi-centered and balanced between each other, by establishing a distributed ledger, the possibility of any participants to change any records is minimal
As the international public blockchain originated from China, PCHAIN has always been committed technology driven, it’s no doubt that the native multi-chain system support larger transactions than intelligent contract platforms, and PCHAIN has been closely followed by community developers worldwide.
PCHAIN is making large-scale blockchain applications happen and enabling people to access the blockchain anytime, anywhere, as simple as accessing the Internet nowadays.
submitted by pchain_org to u/pchain_org [link] [comments]

How to Mine BiblePay on Linux

This guide is outdated, please refer to:
https://wiki.biblepay.org/POBH_Setup
https://wiki.biblepay.org/PODC_Setup
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
IMPORTANT - Evolution Upgrade:
Quick Start https://wiki.biblepay.org/Quick_Start
Evolution Upgrade Information https://wiki.biblepay.org/Evolution_Upgrade
Getting Started with Evolution https://wiki.biblepay.org/Getting_Started_with_Evolution
Generic Smart Contracts https://wiki.biblepay.org/Generic_Smart_Contracts
What is BiblePay Evolution? https://www.reddit.com/BiblePay/comments/bifvpk/biblepay_evolution_what_is_it/
Recommend 2GB RAM or can get stuck compiling (if 1GB RAM can use Swap File) Use Ubuntu 16.04
INFO
https://github.com/biblepay/biblepay-evolution/blob/masteBuildBiblePay.txt
INSTALL COMMANDS
apt-get install build-essential libtool autotools-dev automake pkg-config libssl-dev libevent-dev bsdmainutils apt-get install libboost-system-dev libboost-filesystem-dev libboost-chrono-dev libboost-program-options-dev libboost-test-dev libboost-thread-dev apt-get install libqt5gui5 libqt5core5a libqt5dbus5 qttools5-dev qttools5-dev-tools libprotobuf-dev protobuf-compiler apt-get install git apt-get install curl build-essential libtool autotools-dev automake pkg-config python3 bsdmainutils cmake sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bitcoin/bitcoin sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install libdb4.8-dev libdb4.8++-dev git clone http://github.com/biblepay/biblepay-evolution prefix=x86_64-pc-linux-gnu cd biblepay-evolution/depends make -j4 # Choose a good -j value, depending on the number of CPU cores available cd .. ./autogen.sh #Note: if echo `pwd` does not return your working directory, replace it with your working directory such as /biblepay-evolution/ ./configure --prefix `pwd`/depends/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu make # See more here: #https://github.com/biblepay/biblepay-evolution/blob/mastedoc/build-unix.md 

SWAP FILE
NOTE: if server is 1GB RAM, before running last command "sudo make", set up a swap file
free #check if swap is 0 dd if=/dev/zero of=/vaswap.img bs=1024k count=1000 mkswap /vaswap.img swapon /vaswap.img free #check if swap is 1024 sudo make 

RUN COMMAND LINE
cd src ./biblepayd -daemon 
OR
RUN GUI
Your GUI program will be located in: /biblepay-evolution/src/qt
./biblepay-qt 
You can also run it in the background (to free up your terminal) if you call it with:
./biblepay-qt & 
To start mining, instructions are the same as for Windows: Go to Tools -> Debug Console
Execute this command (to start mining with 8 threads)
setgenerate true 8 
From there you can use all other commands such as getmininginfo, getwalletinfo, etc. Execute help command to get the list of all available commands.
Note: GUI will be built automatically only if you meet the requirements for qt library, i.e. make sure you ran this line before compiling:
sudo apt-get install libqt5gui5 libqt5core5a libqt5dbus5 qttools5-dev qttools5-dev-tools libprotobuf-dev protobuf-compiler 
BIBLEPAY is now Running!

SETUP CONFIG
Stop BiblePay and set up the config file to get starting nodes to sync with and enable mining:
./biblepay-cli stop cd ~/.biblepayevolution/ vi biblepay.conf addnode=node.biblepay.org gen=1 genproclimit=1 
Escape Key + : (Colon Key) + w + q + Enter (saves file and quits)

addnode --- adds a node to the list of nodes to connect to gen=1 --- turns on mining genproclimit --- sets number of threads to use when mining

Run BiblePay again and fully sync with network
cd ../biblepay-evolution/src ./biblepayd -daemon ./biblepay-cli getinfo 

USEFUL COMMANDS
./biblepay-cli help ./biblepay-cli getaccountaddress "" ./biblepay-cli getinfo ./biblepay-cli getmininginfo ./biblepay-cli setgenerate true 8 ./biblepay-cli sendtoaddress "insertAddressHere" 777 "" "" true ./biblepay-cli stop ./biblepayd -daemon top #CPU usage q to quit 

MINING THREADS: To change number of threads to use up for mining
a. Edit home/yourusername/.biblepayevolution/biblepay.conf file:
genproclimit=X 
and restart BiblePay -or- b. Menu >> Tools >> Debug Console >> Type command:
setgenerate true X 
(Replace X with number of threads Use top command to view CPU usage)

POOL
NOTE: To use the pool you must now use the external miner, not the wallet miner https://whitewalr.us/2019/biblepay-nomp-pool-mining.html
  1. Set up an account on pool website: https://pool.biblepay.org/
  2. Create Worker Username(s) - Workers tab >>> Add
  3. Enable pool and add Worker Username in ~/.biblepayevolution/biblepay.conf file, add these lines and save:
    pool=https://pool.biblepay.org workerid=insertWorkerUsernameHere
4. Restart BiblePay
./biblepay-cli stop ./biblepayd -daemon 
Setup Auto-Withdraw Navigate to Account >>> Account Settings >>> Verify your BBP Receiving Address >>> Click Authorize-Auto-Withdraws

UPDATE:

### Turn off/stop BiblePay
cd /home/yourname/biblepay-evolution/src ./biblepay-cli stop 

### Pull down latest Biblepay code and build it
cd /home/yourname/biblepay-evolution git pull origin master sudo make 

### Turn BiblePay back on and check version number
cd src ./biblepayd -daemon ./biblepay-cli getinfo ./biblepay-cli setgenerate true 8 

UPDATE IN ONE COMMAND:
./biblepay-evolution/src/biblepay-cli stop ; cd && cd biblepay-evolution/ && git pull origin master && sudo make && cd src && ./biblepayd -daemon && sleep 90 && ./biblepay-cli getmininginfo 
Note: the ";" says do this after, regardless of the outcome Note: && says do this after only if previous command finished with no errors

SPEED UP COMPILE:
To speed up the compile time, add -j4 or -j8 after make. This way it compiles using 4 or 8 threads instead of just 1.
./configure LDFLAGS="-L${BDB_PREFIX}/lib/" CPPFLAGS="-I${BDB_PREFIX}/include/" sudo make -j8 
Reference: http://www.linux-databook.info/?page_id=2319

RSYNC stop biblepay from your nodes compile on your fastest machine then rsync with your machines only src folder is required
rsync -avuz /root/biblepay-evolution/src/ [email protected]:/root/biblepay-evolution/src/ 
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3299951/how-to-pass-password-for-rsync-ssh-command https://www.thegeekstuff.com/2008/11/3-steps-to-perform-ssh-login-without-password-using-ssh-keygen-ssh-copy-id/
people make cron jobs and rsync automatically

OUTDATED

Unofficial Bash Script
https://gist.github.com/anonymous/d1c1d35e3c8f67f5fb2e204479fa5c6b

Official Ubuntu Package
https://launchpad.net/~biblepay-official

Unofficial Ubuntu Package
https://www.reddit.com/BiblePay/comments/7rwqqs/unofficial_ubuntu_packages_available/

Unofficial Mine in One Line
https://www.reddit.com/BiblePay/comments/7ryuk1/mine_in_one_line/
NOTE: DONT RUN ON A COMPUTER WITH COINS -- THIS IS A CLEAN INSTALL SCRIPT

COMPILE WITHOUT GUI: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2042657.msg21878317#msg21878317 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=2042657.msg21878389#msg21878389
ADVANCED:

DOCKER IMAGES (NOTE: I havent tested these, use at your own risk) https://hub.docker.com/gagaha/biblepay/ https://hub.docker.com/cryptozero/biblepay-opt/
submitted by togoshige to BiblePay [link] [comments]

Best Bitcoin Mining Software That Work in 2020 Bitcoin blockchain records mining difficulty record 2 Biggest Bitcoin Cloud Mining Website  8th Payment Proof Freemining.Co And Unix BITCOIN MINING ,METHOD OF MINING ,TECHNIQUES , EARN FREE ... UnixMine.Biz 2020 BTC Mining Websit Daily Mine 0.01 BTC Best Investement Websit!!

3. Bitcoin Mining Hardware CPU mining. When Bitcoin first started out, there weren’t a lot of miners out there. In fact, Satoshi, the inventor of Bitcoin, and his friend Hal Finney were a couple of the only people mining Bitcoin back at the time with their own personal computers.. Using your CPU (central processing unit—your computer’s brain) was enough for mining Bitcoin back in 2009 The network-adjusted time is then the node-local UTC plus the median offset from all connected nodes. Network time is never adjusted more than 70 minutes from local system time, however. Bitcoin uses an unsigned integer for the timestamp, so the year 2038 problem is delayed for another 68 years. See also epoch, genesis block. Mining Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Litecoin, Dogecoin. of the company at the moment of time. days at work 366 days. users 159902 users. invested 825092.1 USD. Average investment 517.93 USD. 20 July 2020 Power sold. SCRYPT 2743777.9649 MH/s; SHA-256 Braiins OS is part of Satoshi Labs and is the creation of the original inventor of mining pools, Marek “Slush” Palatinus. You may also know Marek for his invention of the Trezor, the world’s first hardware wallet.. Unlike many other mining software and operating systems, Braiins is completely free. Bitcoin mining pool address signatures and statistics of their behavior over time. - mining-pool-address-features.sql

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